Copyright arne zuidhoek - 2007



B., Alexandre – From Marseille, France

Born into a rich family, his education had been classical. His father had enthrusted him with a cargo of wine and oils. Squandered this cargo at the gambling table. Got in debt, took to drinking and vagabondage. Arrested in Havana, Cuba. Escaped and joined > Rafaelin’s company, stealing and robbing from a cayo on Cuba’s North coast. Died of a wound after having taken a richly laden French vessel at Cayo Verde, 1826.


Baal, Robert – From France.

Plundered and burnt Cartagena on the Spanish Main, ca. 1530. The Spaniards in the West Indies knew him under the name of Jean François de la > Roque aka Señor de Roberval who sacked Santiago de Cuba in 1543.


Baas, Jan – From Dussen, the Netherlands. (1743-18?)

Aka Zwarte Jan (Black John) or Schipper Jan (Skipper John). Harrassed the interior- and coastwaters of the provinces of South- and North Holland. A short fat man. Sailed in the French merchant marine serving in ships that plied East- and Westindian Seas as well as in the Mediterranean and the North Sea. Smuggler. Member of the “Hollandse Bende” (Dutch Gang) of some 20 individuals that raided the coasts of  Zeeland and Zuid-Holland and far inland, 1797-‘8. Their fleet consisted of nothing more than three humble ships, more or less riverboats. However, these were of good use since waterways in the Republic were far better than landways. These ships were regularly overhauled and repainted in a different colour. Arrested July 1799 with Van der > Wiel at Zuilichem, Holland, carrying two loaded pistols in his scarf. Tried to break out his cell in the Gevangenpoort (Gate of Prisoners) at Den Haag. After being sentenced to lifelong imprisonment tried to break out of the prison at Gouda, Holland,  but failed again. Still alive in prison in 1807. No news from him from then on.


Babbington > Bobbington


Bâbord-Amures > Andoche, Simon


Bachelire, François – From France. 1708.


Bachelor, Jack the > Criss, John



Aka Francisco. Master of a Baltimore clipper operating in Cuban waters. Worked with > Rafaelin. 1826.

     From a newspaper published in Boston, Massachusetts, January 16, 1822:

     “The brig Harriet, Capt. Dimond, from St. Jago de Cuba for Baltimore, arrived at Havana on the 16th ult. Having been robbed of all her cargo of sugar, and $ 4000 in specie, off Cape Antonio, by a boat with 15 men, having two schooners in company. Capt. Dimond was hung up by the neck, and remained senseless for some time after he was taken down.”

     “If the Spanish Government is unable to drive the Pirates from their strong holds in Cuba, the Baltimore Chronicle suggests the necessity of occupying the island with American forces for that purpose, as robbers and pirates have a right to enjoy no protection whatever; and in this case all civilized powers are warranted in carrying the war into the enemy’s territory.”

Backer, Anthonis de -  Seabeggar from Amsterdam, Holland.


Backer, Hendrik de – Watergeus (Seabeggar) from Amsterdam, Holland.             


Backer, Tade – Seabeggar from Leeuwarden, Friesland.


Badger, Charlotte – From London, England.

Described as “fat, with a full face, thick lips, and light hair”, a pickpocket sentenced to transportation for life. In Port Jackson (Sydney), New South Wales, Australia, embarked on the colonial brig Venus, April 1806. With other convicts (Catherine > Hagerty, R.T. > Evans, B.B. > Kelly, J.W. > Lancashire, R. > Thompson) seized the 45-ton brig while she was anchored off Port Dalrymple, 17 June, 1806. Made away with the ship. Disembarked in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, where two couples (Hagerty & Kelly, Badger & Lancashire) built a hut. Fourteen years later news reached Australia that a white woman with a child was living with a minor chieftain at the Bay of Islands, probably Charlotte Badger. However, an American whaling captain once found a white woman and her half-caste son living on the island of Vavau Island in the Tonga Group. And he took her with him, another rasacal in paradise...


‘Twas here the girls, including all

(To speak it rather dryly)

The sailors’ amorous wants supplied

And think they are hon’red highly.


Baeteman, Nicolaes


Baetio – Barbary corsair from Spain.

One of > Cheyr-id-Din’s men. During the siege of Bizerta, North of Tunis, 1534 had been forced to defend himself. Discovered that a cannon behind him pointing seawards was loaded. With the assistance of others succeeded in slewing it round and discharged it at close quarters into the packed masses of the enemy. The corsairs then swept all before them. It is said that more than 3.000 of the townspeople were slain. Wearied out by the slaughter Barbarossa called off his men.


Bailarín, Simón de > Danser, Simon de


Bailey – From England.

Commanded a ship in > Raleigh’s fleet, 1617, and snapped up some small French vessels near Cape St. Vincent. Raleigh insisted that the captured vessels be released. Deserted him and sailed back to England, playing the pirate en route. Was thrown into prison until offering a groveling apology..


Bailey, Job – From London, England.

One of > Bonnet’s men. Hanged November 8, 1718, in Charleston, South Carolina.


Baines – Buccaneer.

Captain with Henry > Morgan. Captured by M.R. > Pardal and taken to Cartagena, 1670.


Baios – From Greece.

One of > Odysseus’ men, steersman. Said to have founded Baiae near Naples.


Bairam di Ali – Barbary corsair from Flandres.

Renegade. Slave of Joesoef Dey in Tunis, May 12, 1633


Bairan Abdala – Barbary corsair from Flandres.

Renegade. According to a Tunesian certificate dd June 30, 1636, also a slavedealer.


Baker, Bru (or Brewster) – From Avonmouth, England. (1758-1820)

In 1780 a midshipman on board 24-gun frigate HMS Warnock. Met one José Gaspar, then captain of a Spanish man-of-war, in Port de France, Martinique, 1782. Both making love to the two daughters of a wealthy planter there. In 1797 lieutenant in HMS Heather, a 14-gun brig, suddenly leading a mutiny when anchored in the bight at Bridgetown, Barbados. In command of the brig captured the French ship Andre Follet off the island of Guadeloupe. Gaspar also had taken the affairs in his own hands, in Charlotte Harbor on Florida’s West Coast, the two decided to join forces. However, their crews, a mixed and motley lot of Spaniards, Portuguese, French on Gaspar’s side and English on Baker’s, were at war with each other. Men were knifed and murdered. Being outnumbered was forced to leave. Choose for a base and found it in a small island at the head of Pine island, the Spaniards named it Bojelia, Baker Bokeelia. Had thatched huts built and a place for careening the vessels established. Later operated from Charlotte Harbor in consort with Gasparilla.

      Fell in with one of > Lafitte’s privateers of New Orleans, ca. 1800. It was through this connection that Gaspar, now Gasparilla, was able to arrange the sale of valuable plunder to merchants on the Louisana coast.

      In 1819 the U.S. intended to purchase Florida from Spain. Baker saw the handwriting on the wall, had no wish to try his luck against the power of the U.S. navy. Arranged a division of his possessions and plunderage with Gasparilla and left for a new country in South or Central America, or joining Simon Bolivar’s freebooters. Sailed November 1820 but never made it that far. Went ashore at a village on the Darien coast for some reason and was attacked by Indians. If history can be depended on a poisoned arrow brought hours of agony, and then death.

      Another version says Baker did not leave Charlotte Harbor at all. Common to popular believe Baker and his men buried about 3.000.000 dollars worth of gold and silver there in Kettle Bay (now Lemon Bay), 1824. Of course, people say, he planned to come back and retrieve it after the U.S. hunt for pirates was off. Was rowing back to his beloved Andre Follet when a U.S. vessel overhauled him. Recognised as pirates all hands were hanged immediately, only two to escape.

      Years and years later some fishermen came upon a very old man on this beach. Pointing to a certain spot he said: “There lies more money buried than you can ever hope to spend.” The next morning he died. Was buried in the cemetery at Englewood - the first body to be buried there.


Baker, Joseph – From Canada.

Tried for murder & pireacy on board the schooner Eliza. Ca. 1800.


Baker, Thomas

One of John > Hawkins’ men.


Baker, Thomas > Bakker, Thomas


Baker, Thomas

One of > Bellamy’s men. Amongst the eight men prize crew in the wine-loaded Mary Anne of Dublin who promptly went for the casks of Madeira wine in the hold. Began bragging to the captives, telling them that Bellamy’s company had a privateering license from king George himself. When the threemaster succumbed to a storm, grabbed an axe and began hacking away at her masts, a wise thing to do. With two of the three masts down gave up courage and huddled with the others in the hold. This was a devil’s end: lightning flashed in the sky, the wind screamed, the vessel shuddered in the surf. Met the same fate as shipmate Simon van > Vorst and the others.


Baker, Thomas

Came aboard > Rackam’s sloop at Negril Point in Jamaica and brought his gun and cutlass with him. Was executed February the 17th, 1721, at Gallows-Point at Kingston, Jamaica.


Baki Goorja – Barbary corsair from Turkey.

In command of the ship De Ster (The Star), Algiers, 1676. Hunted down a French caravella that sought refuse under the castle of Barlinges. Boarded her but damaged his forecastle and bowsprit. Gunfire from the castle hit his ship “between wind and water”. Not able to stop the leak limped homeward bound. “Niettegenstaande een Turk, was in dese actie heel droncken.” (Although being a Turk was constantly drunk during this action.”)


Bakker, Piet - From Wieringen, the Netherlands.

Sailed a fishing vessel that was not paid for to South Africa and sold her there. ca. 1990.


Bakker, Thomas - From Vlissingen, the Netherlands. Tailor. (1688-1717)

Aka Thomas Baker. Taken out of the pink Mary Anne from Dublin, Ireland, by > Bellamy off Cape François, April 26, 1717. In command of the company of the pink, when the pirates on board drank of the wine on board. Examined during the trial at Boston 6 May, 1717, said that other men “were sent away being married men.” Also stated that Bellamy “spread a large black flag, with a death’s head and bones across and gave chase to Captain Prince under the same colours” and had “held a commission from King George”.

     On Friday November 15th 1717 taken down to the Boston waterfront where North End Park stands today, to be hanged at the Charleston Ferry "between the mark of the tides”, in company of Peter > Hoof, John > Sheean, Simon van > Vorst, Hendrik > Quintor and John > Brown. Reverend Cotton Mather and another minister walked with them to the scaffold. Mather read fifteen chapters of the bible every day himself and asked Baker: “How do you find your heart now disposed?”

     “Oh! I am in a dreadful condition!” poor Thomas said.

     Mather loved pirates to show a suitable degree of penitence. So he said: “You are sensible that you have been a very great sinner.”

     “Oh! Yes I am! And is it possible that such a sinner should ever find mercy with God? Oh God, wilt thou pardon such a sinner?”

     “Oh yes, sure,” answered the reverend, “I perceive you are in very great agony, but the strait gate must be entered with such an agony.”

      Some people watched public executions because they enjoyed the spectacle. Others went for the benefit of their health. It was believed that a stroke of a hanged man’s hand cured illnesses and/or afflictions. Nurses brought children to the foot of the gibbet for a brush with the hand of the dead. We don’t know whether Bakker’s hand diminished a lump or ailment.


Balaguer, Pons de – From France.

Aka Savignac. Served the knights of Malta as standard-bearer. On October 25, 1541 planted his flag on the walls of Azoun on the Barbary coast nearby Algiers, saying: “We will return.” We do not know if he did.


Balanqué – From France.

Made it to the post of  “Capitaine du port au Cap [François] par brevet du 14 juin 1767’’.


Balart, Jean – From France. 14th century.


Balbo, Michele -  From Genoa, Italy.

Took a Genose vessel near Tenedos Island in the Aegean Sea, torturing passengers to make them reveal their precious properties. Served the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus, reigning 1259-’82, to surpress piracy.


Baldibege, Andres

One of three mutineers of the schooner Amalia, October 1848, sailing from Matzatlan, Mexico, to Hong Kong, carrying among the cargo 60.000 pounds sterling (Mexican silver) plus a chest of coins. Murdered the second mate in the still of the night and held the shipmaster prisoner in his cabin. Offered him a well-stocked boat in which he, his supercargo and his wife and her maid, was to leave the schooner unharmed. However, murdered the captain and threw his body overboard. Destroyng the ship’s papers and dividing the treasure of silver and gold, the three entered into drunken debauchery sporting about in women’s garments. By gaining control of the weapons some men who had remained loyal to the captain cut down the mutineers in a bloody coup. Amalia then sailed into Honolulu harbour.


Baldridge, Adam – Buccaneer from Jamaica.

After being wanted for murder in Jamaica, his piratical career seemed to be brief and unprofitable. Signed up with a slave ship that landed at Ste. Marie’s Island, NNE of Madagascar, in July 1690. Built a trading post one year later near a landlocked bay at the island’s SouthWestern end when the island became the headquarters for marauders operating in eastern waters. A log pallisade surrounded huts raised off the ground and roofed with bamboo or the leaves of the banana tree, the whole armed with six guns. His was a lucrative business, the exchange of arms and foodstuffs the New York ships (> Phillips) had carried, for looted gold, silver, silks, spices, dyes and slaves. Cowed the natives with his musket-toting followers in raiding their enemies. Acquired one or more wives, the daughters of Malagasy chiefs. Wrote to merchants in New York that he could supply them with 200 slaves at a cost of 30 shilling each (about $ 750), a price below that of blacks purchased in West Africa; and also with pieces of eight, Indian goods, and a ready market for wares that they might wish to sell on the island. Sold supplies to visiting pirates and could supply them with a safe anchorage in which to careen their vessels. Once they returned to the island, which became a popular haunt, relieved them of their booty. Whether they had gold, silver, jewels or currency, Baldridge could quote a right price. Also acquired the best of their cargoes (spices, drugs, exotic textiles and for those who wanted to return home arranged passage, the standard price being 100 pieces of eight for transportation plus the cost of food. Had them breaking the law. Became known as “King of Saint Mary’s” when he had erected a second, almost impregnable fortification with 22 cannon overlooking a group of warehouses. In exchange for cattle and fruit demanded payment in cannon and gunpowder, trading with every passing ship, buying stolen or legitimate goods, and bartering or reselling these to pirates and honest merchants alike. Associated with Frederick > Philipse, the first capitalist of New York of Dutch descent, and with former pirate Lawrence > Johnston. His harbour was celebrated in a popular ditty:


Where is the trader of London town?

His gold’s on the capstan,

His blood’s on his gown,

And it’s up and away for Saint Mary’s Bay,

Where the liquor is good, and the lasses are gay.


     The goods that Philipse sent to Madagascar provides some sight into life on Ste Marie and are evidence that there lived a large white mariner population. Cargoes consisted of European clothing and tools that would be useful either on the island or aboard ships. At least one cargo also contained “books, Catechisms, primers and horne books, and two bibles” and furthermore “5 Barrells of Rum, four Quarter Caskes of Madera Wine [and] 10 Cases of Spirits.” During the years 1693-‘7 a dozen merchant vessels came to trade European goods for slaves and Indian booty. Their cargoes of alcoholic drinks could not possibly have lasted long among so many men. So I do not think the pirate crews were constantly drunk as modern books and movies insist they were.

     Got too greedy. The Malagasy rebelled in July 1697, killing some 30 pirates and destroyed his warehouse when he had left to trade along the coast of Madagascar. On hearing this news went back to New York. Tried to charme the state’s governor into businessplans with “the setlement of the Island of St Mary’s (...) on your Lordships examination of it I am sure your Lordships will give it all incouragement and furtherance.” The plan fell through and Edward > Welch took over his ruined fortification on the island. There still are rumours about hidden treasure at Ste. Marie. Baldridge made much money there, it made good sense to him and other pirates to store it away while waiting to return home. He never came back to collect his claims.


Balen, Job - Seabeggar from Dordrecht, the Netherlands.


Balestrier – From Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Captain.

Active in the years 1709 to 1742 off the coasts of Egypt and Palestine, usually “on the account” but also under license from the knights of Malta or other piratical rulers.


Ball, Roger

One of > Roberts’ men in the ship Royal Fortune. When captured by HMS Swallow (February 5, 1722) tried to blow up the ship with > Morris and > Main. Being damp the keg had detonated with only enough force to smash a hole in the ship’s side through which he was thrown. Picked up by the Swallow’s boat resisted all attempts to dress his wounds although in terrible pain, refused to be touched. “Why,” he said, “John Morris fired a pistol into the powder, and if he had not done it, I would.” Became delirious during the night. Raved at the top of his voice about Roberts’ bravery and cunning. Was whipped next morning on the forecastle for his insolences. Wrenched at the grating, was lashed more violently for his rsistance. Through the day lay “in a private corner, with a look as sullen as winter”, eating nothing, silent, brooding in the darkness. Lapsed into a coma and was gone.



One of > Green’s men. Hanged on Wednesday, April 18th 1705. Innocent of piracy.


Ballarda, Antonin

Sailed with the > Lafitte’s and William > Mitchell, arriving March 1820 in New Orleans.


Ballat, John – Buccaneer. Surgeon.

One of > Dampier’s and > Rogers’men.


Ballew, Richard

One of Jean > Lafitte’s men. 1817. After his carreer as a pirate obtained an one-league land grant from the Mexican government, 10 miles North of Orange, Texas on the Sabine. The site is still called Ballew’s Ferry. Built slave barracks there.


Baltizar – From Spirito Santo, Cuba.

“A terror to all shipping in the Gulf of Mexico,” says Gosse. Worked as a pilot in Cuban waters and joined the piratical schooner Mexican. It was his plan to maroon the crew of the 107-ton schooner Exertion on a key off the Cuban coast. Taken prisoner and brought to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1823. Because American juries not always condemned a pirate to death in the early part of the 19th century, Baltizar was handed over to English authorities in Kingston, Jamaica, and hanged. A witness said: “[Baltizar] was an old man and it was a melancholy and heartrending sight toi see him borne to execution with those gray hairs which might have been venerable in virtuous old age, [but were] now a shame and reproach to this hoary villain, for he was full of years and old in iniquity.”


Bamfield, John – Buccaneer.

In command of 1-gun Mayflower. Invaded, in company with Edward > Morgan, the islands St. Eustatius and Saba. 1665.


Baniel, Yaff de

Aka Huracán. One of the pirate commanders united in the “Hermandad de la Banda Negra” (Brothers of the Black Flag), a movement mentioned in R. Latcham’s El Tesoro de los Piratas de Guayacán (Santiago, Chile, 2006) and to this day I do not know what to make of this well-documented little work. The other pirates in this booklet mentioned listen to the names of Suden > Deul (father of) Subatol > Deul), Ruhual > Dayo, Henry > Drake, > Norl, > Saden, > Sidel, > Servatol and > Sumastage. It is all about some rich prizes taken in the Atlantic and Pacific and a goldmine on the Chilean coast next to Coquimbo, 1603, for its riches the men finally were fighting among each other as late as 1645. In his book Latcham shows many documents to prove him to tell some truth (but yes, so what? The over-documented Bermuda Triangle turned out to be a hoax, and so is 1421).

     Anyway, De Baniel is said to be a tough searover with 18 years of experience as such. In 1601 his Fantasmas de la Noche (Nightmare) left Salomeruz, Mexico in pursuit of the Spanish 32-gun Cruz de Sangre, 85 men, captained by an “extranjero” named Marfil, probably an Irishman. After seven days of manoeuvring and heavy fighting took the Spanish vessel to the peninsula of Cicop. The vessel carried a wealth in gold and silver, to be exact: 600 bags of golddust and 680 bars of silver. When De Baniel left the coast he was attacked by a Spanish squadron and therefore sought refuge with Sebutal Deul. Then was forced to join the pirate camaraderie called “Brothers of the Black Flag” and to change his name: Huracán de los mares (Hurricane of the seas). Was very much feared on the West American central coast, sailing from their settlement Guayacán but it is strange that his name does not ring a bell in Spanish sources, nor that Guayacán (close to the town of La Serena) was not wiped out by the Spanish. I visited the place in 2008, there is a fort (Fuerte Lambert), its base dating from the second half of the 17th century.


Banks, Hugh

Based at Madagascar. Was arrested with 1.500 pounds sterling when sailing home with Samuel > Burgess in 1699 after marauding in the Indian Ocean.


Banks, John – From Rhode Island, North America.

One of > Tew’s men. In command of the 6-gun Portsmouth Adventure, 20 men, but soon replaced by Joseph > Farrell, in a fleet of 4 ships under Tew, January 1695. All received privateering commissions authorizing them to attack French shippig off the Canadian coast, ‘though the Rhode Island-government later denied granting these commissions. In practice, a privateer’s commission was merely a talisman, did not serve as effective protection against prosecution. Portsmouth Adventure did not take part in the famous battle for the Gunsway, she was wrecked in the Comoro Islands. Banks made it to Réunion Island where he was picked up by > Avery in November 1695.


Bannister, John

Of John > Exton’s men. Present in the taking of the ship Hopewell “of Kinsala in Ireland”. Was arrested and indicted “for assistinge in the killinge of a man unknowen, on borde the sd Hopewell”. 1607.


Bannister, John – From England.

In command of the privateer Vlijt from the Netherlands in the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. Accused of seizing the British Sally was sentenced to death “at Justice Hall in the Old Bailey convicted of piracy”. On 23 December 1782 received the pleasant news he would be released at the next general pardon “for the poor convicts in Newgate”. Was released on the condition “of his entering and continueing to serve us in our Royal Navy”.


Bannister, Joseph (or George) – Buccaneer from England.

Ran away with 30-gun Golden Fleece from Jamaica, June 1684, picking up a crew “of the veriest rogues in these Indies”. Got a French commission. Three vessels of the English navy trapped him down in the Cayman Islands, July 27, while he was stocking up on turtle. Was  persuaded to surrender and put on trial. It turned out that Bannister actually held no French commission and had taken two Spanis prizes. Escaped punishment “by  corruption of evidence and mismanagement”. The Jamaican government would not accept this decision of the Grand Jury and had him rearrested. Languished in jail till January 1685 then escaped through the “carelessness of the sentries” and set out in his ship with 50 men. In April that year present at a pirate’s rendez-vous at Isla de Piños, South of Cuba, in company of de > Graaf,  > Grammont and > Willems. HMS Ruby fell in but did not seem bothered by the many searovers. Ruby’s captain only wanted to know why Bannister was flying a French flag. Grammont said “that he [Bannister] had not entered the King of France’s service” and the captain “thought it best not to insist further”. In September sailed with De Graaf, La > Garde and > Duchesne and escaped an action of a Spanish fleet. Was cornered by two British men of war while in Samaná Bay on the NorthEast coast of Hispaniola, June 12, 1686. “Sounded a trumpett” and opened fire. The fight lasted from 15.00 till the evening of the following day, by which time Drake and Faulcon had lost 23 men killed and wounded. Golden Fleece was “sunke at least two strakes, being as low as the ground would give leave”. With no powder left the royal ships sailed away. Was finally captured December 1686 on the Mosquito Coast. Brought in January 1687 in hanging at the yard-arm of HMS Drake in sight of Port Royal, Jamaica. “A spectacle of great satisfaction to all good people, and of terror to the favoureres of pirates, the manner of his punishment being that which will most discourage others”.


Banoren > Hoorn, Nicolaas van


Bapa Palakka – From the East India Archipelago.

Had his base at Kalatua in the Flores Sea behind a 900-meter riff, defended by two bulwarks. Dressed in red. Commanded a fleet of seven bintaks and one padoeakan. June 1845 this base was attacked by the Dutch Zr.Ms Haai (Shark). Fled with his men into the woods.


Bapana Garoeda – From the East India Archipelago.

Based at the Island of Sailoos in the Paternoster Group, NE of Java and SW of Celebes, a fine location for a place of rest for the Sulu pirates who came here via the Strait of Makassar to prey in the Flores Sea. A Dutch squadron took to Sailoos to wipe out this pirate concentration, December 19th,  1860. Seven pirate prahu’s (bintaks) were destroyed. After heavy fighting and with help of more naval paddlesteamers the pirates took to building some sampans to escape from the island. Some 140 troops tried to prevent this but did not succeed and thus waited for more troops. Some 100 coolies and 200 warriors from the island of Bima arrived and they cut the little island bare of any growth and undergrowth. On the 21st of January 1861 Bapana still withstood the assailants. Surrendered with 20 surviving warriors when the island was totally devastated. 48 rovers were imprisoned, together with 47 women aned 78 children. 18 slaves were liberated.


Baptis, Jean – From France.

One of  John > Phillips’ forced men, taken out of a French vessel of 150 tons, 20 September 1724. Tried on the 12th of May, 1724, by a special court of the admiralty, but “honourably” acquitted.


Baraasser, Willem

One of the mutineersof the Dutch VOC-ship Windhond when in the Persian Gulf. March 2d 1733.

     The rebels forced the door of the saloon, broke the armoury en took guns and pistols. Went to the quarterdeck where they presented the captain with a roundrobin. (In this document rebels explain their behaviour, signed by them in a circle - a statement that all hands are responsible for the deed.) Not everyone of the crew complied with this action and the captain said he rather had his head bashed in than to cooperate. The answer to this followed in an instant: “He had to keep his big mouth shut and not interfere in anything” and sign a paper which said he was acting under protest and would not resist. A knife against his belly and a pistol at his chest made clear how to act. “God forbids a forced oath,” the captain grumbled. The others signed with him, afraid to be thrown overboard. The mutineers opened one or two barrels of wine and took a toast to good health and  future. The gunner ordered to have the canons cleared for action, ready to capture any ship in sight.

     The first ships Windhond met were two Dutch Indiamen. In the scrimmage that followed ringleader Alonso ® Croese was left behind on their decks when Windhond broke the assault. Both Indiamen pursued her but she escaped. The rovers thought their intentions over. Then planned to sail to the Gulf of Mocha harassing shipping there to their hearts’ delight and taking the plunder to Madagascar. This island appealed to dreamers of justice and happiness. One could settle down there, without any fear for what regime ever, no tyranny of kings or governors or priests. A attractive clime, fertile lands and, very important, women to love. However, the navigator had escaped to the Dutch East-Indiamen, how would they manage to reach this promised land? After a three days sail they spotted an anchored  Moorish ship off a unknown coast. Instead of taking her the pirates asked for information of their whereabouts. But the ship cut her cable and drifted into a dark night At dawn more ships came into sight and, worse, a fortified town showed herself on the coastline. They boldly took a boat ashore and told the people there how they had experienced a tough passage and were looking for a place to have the topmasts and rudder repaired, and yes, they were in need for victuals. The population of  Catje (sic) treated them friendly. Some of the rovers gave up their pirate-plans here. Serving the Perisans as seamen and specialists looked like a far better idea. Next day they rowed the boat ashore, among them Willem Baraasser, and disappeared from history. No one of these 22 men was ever arrested or tried.


Baradel – Flibuster from France. Captain.

Originally a corsair who had stolen 400 black slaves from an English ship and arrived at the roads of Tortuga island on the North coast of Hispaniola, 1629, not long after the hunters were driven from this island by the Spanish.


Barbarroja – Barbary corsair from Ireland.

Aka Barbarossa. Renegade. Active on the Spanish coast and the Balearics in 1824: “y delante de Ibiza, seguro de un buen botin; oh fatalidad! Nuestro general [Barceló] se despojo del antifaz y dedujo al insurrecto victima de su engano” (was demasked by our general who retook his prize).


Barbarossa > Aruj; > Cheir-id-din


Barbazon > St. Cyr Barbazon


Barbe, Nicholas – From St. Malo, Bretagne, France. Captain.

Commanded the Breton ship Mychell, owned by Hayman Gillard, with a crew of 9 Bretons and 5 Scots. Captured by an English ship, 1532.


Barbeito, Felix

Tried for the “occurrences” on board the brig Crawford, 1827.


Barber, the – Nickname of Jan > Jansz aka Murat Reys.


Barber, Henry – From England.

“Ha the reputation of being a shrewd trader, at times a freebooter and even a blackguard”. Commanded the brig Arthur in 1796, to be shipwrecked at Barber’s Point on the island of Oahu. Among the first recorded wrecks in the Hawaiin Islands involving loss of life. Six members of the crew drowned in attempting to reach the shore. Some cannon were later salvaged and now decorate the Lahaina harbor.



Aka Arturo > Sandoval. A man “a quíen la suerte favoreció de sobremanera’’ (a extremely lucky person). Active from Isla Términos, Yucatán. With seven vessels put up a blockade of the port of Campeche from Jaina Island, 6 miles NE, 30 June 1692. Remained in this position for 19 days, taking several prizes. Contended with a ransom of 14.000 pesos set his hostages free and weighed anchor without too much of a hurry (zarpar sin mucha prisa). Other sources say this happened in 1708.


Barbolani, count of Montauto, Francesco – Knight of St. Stephen from Italy.

Captured more than one muslim merchantmen near Elba in the period of 1590-’96. Commanded squadrons of the order of St. Stephen along the Barbary coasts.


Barbolani, count of Montauto, Giulio – Knight of St. Stephen from Italy.

Admiral of the galleys of the order of St. Stephen that captured 6 muslim vessels in 1618-‘9. Died 1619.


Barceló – From Spain.

Admiral. In the 18th century delivered more than 10.000 slaves to the crown.


Barceló, Antoni – From Mallorca, Spain.

Served in the navy of the Papal States. Whether he was considered a corsair or a pirate is not quite clear. 17th century.


Bardi – Knight of Malta.

Aka Brother Gualterotti. Took a small ship with rice. The crew was stripped naked and set adrift in a small boat. 1616.


Barenca, Prudencio – From Chile.

Corporal In the Chilean army. Joined > Cambiazo’s rebellion, plundering on land and at sea from Punta Arenas, Patagonia, 1851. Arrested in November 1851.


Barendsz, Barend

26 January 1572 beheaded at Enkhuizen, Holland, for "het sich te buyten gaen aan seeroverij en andere ghewelddaden" (“extreme behaviour in piracy and other violences”.).


Barentsz, Barent – Seabeggar from Kampen, the Netherlands.


Bargach, Abdul-Rahman – Barbary corsair.

One of the last corsairs from Saleh, Maroc. Ca. 1829.


Barges, John

Died in a shipwreck, ca. 1720.


Barker, Andrew – From Bristol, England. Merchant.

Sailed for Panama, June 1576, with William > Coxe and Ph. > Roche, his expedition sponsored by the earl of Leicester. Took valuable prizes after Trinidad, seizing a Spanish warship that he made his flagship. Hanged a Spanish settler after unsuccessfully assaulting Veragua, Western Panama, May 1577. Was marooned on Guanaja Island off Hondureas after quarreling with Roche and Coxe. Was attacked by Spanish soldiers and killed. The Spanish brought his head and the heads of his men to Trujillo.


Barker, Edmund. From London, England. Captain.

Took a small prize  inthe West Indies in1590 as master of the 60-ton Mary. Was second-in-command of Edward Bonaventure in the 1591-‘4-expedition to the Indian Ocean. Wrote a report of the voyage. Was killed during a raid on Pernambuco, Brazil, 1595.


Barkmeijer – From the Southern Netherlands.

During the 16th and 17th century family Barkmeijer owned commissions but rather sailed “on the account”


Barley, Job

One of > Bonnet’s men.


Barlicorn, Richard – From Carolina, North America.

Aka John Barleycorne. One of > Kidd’s men, apprentice and cabin boy in Adventure Galley,  fifteen years old. Returned with him in 1699 in Adventure Prize. Surrendered under the Act of Grace at New York but sent for trial in England. In 1701 pleaded he was not a member of the crew and wanted to confirm the fact he was mere a servant. His plea was accepted (even though he had taken a share of the plunder) and he was released.


Barlow, Jonathan

One of > Low’s forced men. When with > Shipton was placed on board a prize John and Mary with three pirates and forced man Nicholas > Simons, all double armed. After Shipton had gone untied the hands of the imprisoned mate and propoed him to kill the three pirates and if successful, to make a course for some English port.  Which they did. Killed the third pirate, then cut “their cable and made the best of their way to deep water and with no further adventures reached Newport, R.I., the last of January, 1725.”


Barnard ® Spierdijk, Bernard



Based in Jamaica outfitted an expedition to San Tomé on the Orinoco River, June 1663. Sacked the town.


Barnes, Henry – From Barbados.

Tried for piracy, found to be nolt guilty. Newport, 1723.


Barnes, William

Captain. Raided Santa Marta (Venezuela) in the Spanish Main along with > Lagarde and John > Coxon, June 1677. Took numerous prisoners including the governor and a bishop until a ransom had been paid. Carried them with to Jamaica, from where the bishop was sent back to Santa Marta, “the good old man was exceedingly pleased”.



Captain. Ex-pirate hired by > Rogers to hunt down pirates. 1720.


Barnet, Tom

One of > Shelvocke’s men who manned prizeship Mercury under the command of > Hatley.


Barney, Joshua – From Baltimore, North America.

Rather a privateer or “Man of Marque”than a pirate. Captained one of the finest and fastest Baltimore clippers.


Barré, Nicolás – From France.

Active in the Atlantic Ocean, c. 1555.


Barre, de la – Knight of Malta.

Took 3 Jews as a slave out of a French ship in the Near East. 1663.


Barre, le – From France.

One of > Lewis’s men. Was elected their captain when the French onboard Lewis’s vessel revolved to go away in a large sloop newly taken on the coast of Guinea, West-Africa. When at anchor under the.coast Lewis showed up and ran alongside with his guns “all shotted and primed” and told him to cut away his mast or he would sink them. Was obliged to obey. Was allowed with a few of his men to come aboard of Lewis’s vessel “with whom he and his own men drank plentifully. The negroes warned Lewis for a French plot that night, to which he answered that he could jnot withstand his destiny for the Devil had come into the great Cabin and told him he should be murdered that night.” Indeed. Le Barre and his men came in the dead of night and killed the piratechief. After that fell on the crew but after fierce fighting for more than an hour and a half all Frenchmen were killed. Ca. 1726.


Barrenson, Tyfe

Carpenter in > Carle’s ship Philip during the attack on three French vessels, June 1600. “Philip shot at the Admiral both with great ordinance and muskets; and both the French ships answered in like manner with great and small ordinance. And Philip charged again and laid her aboard, and made a rope fast upon the French ship.” The rope broke , or slipped, “and thereby Philip fell off and drove upon the other ship the Vice-Admiral, being hard astern.” Then the pirates boarded. “We entered our men into the same. Ands as some of the English men were taking down the flag, the French men cried, What will you do, what will you do, the ship does sink! Where upon the English men ran back and cast some handguns [culverins] of the French ship into Philip (and stealing what they could] and left the French ship.” “In the said fight nine or ten of the company were wounded and slain by shot that came from the French ship. Whereof the Captain lost a leg, and other lost an arm, others were shot through and one of Philip’s men was slain; and one English man cast overboard.”

     Admiral’s lading was considerable: “Sugar, brasil wood, and other timbers; a hundred ounces of musk, balm and parritch [?]. And Spanish money stored at [beds]’end, for [he] helped to count the money and saw it put in a bag.” Barrenson testified under examination that “The Captain charged him that he had sworn untruely, and there upon drew his knife and cut him in the face.”


Barreto, Ysabel de – From Spain.

Sailed with her husband and three brothers in a 4-ships fleet from Callao, Peru, into the Pacific Ocean, 1595. The fleet carried 382 prospective colonists. The first Europeans to sail through the Marquesas. At Santa Cruz one of the vessels disappeared. Here De Barreto’s husband decided to start the colony but the soldiers wanted to move on. After some days, when her husband died of a disease, Ysabel de Barreto took charge. Under her command the three vessels set sail on November 18, 1595. Another ship disappeared. Though the crews and colonists suffered from hunger and thirst the widow, being a genuine Spanish noblewoman, did not share in their sufferings, she even used stored fresh water to wash her clothes. A third ship disappeared before Manila was reached, February 11, 1596. Fifty of De Barreto’s San Jerónimo had died en route, but Doña Ysabel was “perfectly fit”. One may observe that she, as a noblewoman had the “right” to take from her fellowmen - one can also say that she stole food and drink just by holding this from them. Which is a sort of theft. I think this farfetched, but some say this made her a pirate.


Barrett, Robert

First officer under John > Hawkins and his “favorite henchman”. Was sent to San Juan de Ulua, Mexico to parlor because he spoke Spanish fluently. When aboard the Spanish flagship was put in irons, September 1568. Was kept a prisoner. Refused to recant his protestantism and burned alive in the market place of  Seville, Spain.


Barroso, Lucas – Barbary corsair.

Captured the Danish brigantine Martinus & Maria, 1781.


Barrow – From England.

Active in the Atlantic and the Western part of the Mediterranean, ca. 1610. Pardoned. “Was it not strange,” an English admiral wondered in the first decades of the 17th century, “that these few could command so many. They would rob before the eys of all. Many times they had good ships in a fleet and well manned but came to such factions amongst themselves and were so riotous and blasphemous, that they could not long continue to do great mischief, and all they got, they spent or wasted on Jews, Moors, Turks and Whores.”


Barrow, James

One of > Roberts’men, joined the pirates after been taken out of the snow Martha, 1721. Stated that the pirates had killed all of his chickens and then fell to drinking hard, so that by supper time they were singing “Spanish and French songs out of a Dutch Prayer Book.”


Barrow, Thomas

As a mate on a Jamaican brigantine clubbed by the captain. Had decked his superior with a solid right. Since this was a crime punishable by death, had fled to the life of an outlaw, to become the most dreaded raider in the Caribbean at that time (1716). It is also said he had run off with a cache of valuables belonging to “a Spanish marquis.” Was often found in New Providence Island in the Bahama’s a favourite hangout, waylaying merchantmen travelling to and from the Caribbean. One inhabitant, who had fled the pirate invasion, stated that the leader was “a captain named Thomas Barrow.” Though Barrow had no vessel of his own he was considered being “the ‘Governor’ of Providence and will make it a second Madagascar, and expects 500 or 600 men from Jamaican sloops to join in the settling of Providence.” 2000 pirates were living on board their ships in the harbour or in the shantytown on shore. The only permanent buildings were the taverns where one could booze and gamble away the prize money, or spend it on the prostitutes who worked out of tents made from sail canvas. Barrow is said to have established a virtual reign of terror there, however “was one of many”. Robbed a brigantine in the harbor en beatup the master of a Bermuda sloop. Also harassed the law-abiding citizens of Nassau, shaking them down for drinking money and whipping anyone who refused him. In short: this pirate Thomas Barrow was not a nice man.


Barry, Charles

“Indicted for piracy on the High Seas, on the 19th of February last [1791] on board the Fairy...”


Barry, Lording – From England.

After 1603 operated in the Atlantic and the Western part of the Mediterranean like > Barrow. Took a free pardon in Leghorn (Livorno) in 1613. Remained a few years there before returning to Engand. Known to have a “negro wench” onboard his ship when in Berehaven, Ireland, and said to be a “pirate & poet”.


Bart, Captain > Spierdijk, Bernard


Bart, Gaspard – From Duinkerken, France (then the Spanish Netherlands).

From the famous Bart-family. In the eyes of the Netherlanders a pirate. In the eyes of the Spanish a corsair. 1622


Bart, Pierre – From France.

Cousin of the famous Jean Bart and also rather a corsair than a pirate. Ca. 1745.


Bart, Samson – From Harfleur, France.

Aka La Pinte. 15th century.



In command of the brig Ami du Peuple, admiral of a corsair fleet of the French Revolution, sailing from Point à Pitre, Guadeloupe, in the Caribbean. Did not refrain from acts of piracy. Ca. 1795.


Bartholomé – Flibuster from Portugal.

Aka Bartolomeus the Portugues. Ca. 1665. Born under a unlucky star. Left from Jamaica in command of a small 4-gun ship with 30 men. Cruising off Cabo de Corrientes, Cuba, assaulted a large galleon bound for Havana. After a long fight wherein half of the piratecrew was killed became master of her, and owner of 70.000 pieces of 8. Unexpectedly was assaulted in his turn by three Spanish vessels off Cabo San Antonio. Was taken prisoner with his crew and of course stripped of the riches they had obtained so little before. Bad weather forced the Spanish squadron to Campeche where the townspeople recognised him as the leader of piratepacks that had ravaged the Yucatan coast. This caused them a gibbet to be erected, with the intention to hang him the next day. During the night killed the sentry with a stolen knife. Took two earthen jars, stopped them well. Then committed himself to the sea and with the support of the jars managed to reach the shore. Instaed of fleeing into the country first hid himself in the hollow of a tree. Some days later sallied forth through 30 miles of harsh wilderness. Made as well as he could a raft and finally reached Golfo Triste on the Eastern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula. Happened to find a vessel with fellow flibusters from Jamaica. To these he demanded to fit him out with a boat and 20 men, just to assault the ship which he had been taken by and escaped from. They granted his request. Recaptured the said ship in Campeche, the Spaniards to stunned to resist. The taken merchandise had remained on board, the pieces of 8 had gone. Not undaunted set out for a next exploit but again bad luck overtook him. Near the isle of Pinos, South of Cuba, a great storm chased his ship ashore. Some say that he died in the tempest, others that he and some others survived. Exquemelin has it that the bold and ruthless seaman “made many more violent attacks on the Spaniards without gaining much profit. For I saw him dying in the greatest wretchedness in the world.” Exquemelin did not say where or when.


Bartholomew – Captain.

According to some sources to have conducted an expedition to the coast of Guinée in 1729 but is probably confused with Bartholomew > Sharp.


Bartold – Vitalienbruder.

Aka Bartold der Schreiber (the clerk). One of the 200 crew of three pirate vessels attacked by Hansa-ships May 5, 1400, on the river Ems, North Germany. The Hansa kogges, equipped with fore- and aftercastles. boarded as usual in those days. After a grim fight, in which some soldiers hacked down the sails – covering attackers and defenders alike – 80 pirates were killed. Many pirates escaped swimming for their life and reached safety in the lands of sympathizers. 25 however were taken prisoner, and in triumph transported to Emden. Put on trial May 11th all 25 were stante pede sentenced to death and beheaded the same day: “Wy wunnen se to Emede myd rechte unde leten en de hovede abhowen.” (We took them to Emdentown and had their heads cut off.) Amongst the three was one > Kurt, bastardson of the duke von Oldenburg, Hinrik > Holle and Bartold der Schreiber.



One of John > Rackam’s men. Said to have died in the duel that woman pirate Mary > Read picked up to defend her lover Tom Deane. This is what novelist J. Carlova (in: Mistress of the Seas) made up from the incident, which took place when the pirate ship was anchored off Trinidado, on the South coast of Cuba:

      “Mary hurried to the tavern where Barton was drinking. She sent in the word that she was ready to duel. Immediately the pirates came pouring outside, with Barton at their head. He was a fierce-looking brute, big and hulking, with a scarred face and grizzled head. He wiped the back of his hand across his rum-drenched mouth and roared, ‘Ye say you’re ready, Mister Read? Well, let’s see if you’re ready for this!’ (...) The two antogonists then clashed with cutlasses. As the other pirates ‘formed a loud, shouting circle in the gaudy tropical twilight,’ Barton and Mary  swung and slashed at each other. Barton, with his greater strength dominated the opening stage of the duel. Then, as Mary’s superior skill and speed began to tell, Barton went on the defensive. He was finally disarmed and knocked to his knees by a blow which nearly severed his right arm. A second, more forceful blow struck the base of his skull and killed him.” 1719, or 1720, at Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahama’s.


Barton, Andrew – From Scotland.

A privateer who turned to piracy. Son of John > Barton. Acted upon his father’s letter of marque permitting him to chase and take Portuguese shipping, 1511. Assisted by his sons Andrew, Henry and Robert. With the well-armed Jennet Purwyn and Lion plundered off the Flemish coast, some of their prizes being Portuguese, or English. In 1516 promoted to the position of pirate hunter in a “great and costly” ship to put an end to the activites of Flemish rovers. Did a good job, sending his superior “certaine pepis [barrels] with the headies of the Hollanders.” In 1508 was sent to Danmark to assist gverness Margaretha fof Savoye against the Hanza-city of Lübeck. She complained about Barton’s piracies instead. Th king of England did too. So an English vessel was sent to free the Northern seas from this scourge. Barton was spotted off the Downs, 2 August 1511, having put up “a willow wand on his mast, as being the emblem of a trading vessel”. A bitter-fought battle followed. Sent a crewmember in the mast to oversee the situation. Two men were shot by English bowmen and dashed down. Decided to fill in the risky post himself. Was killed in the masthead by a well-aimed arrow. His crew was sent home and Lion taken to Blackwell Harbour and added to the king’s warfleet as a second-best ship. Of course the king of Scotland James IV had to react upset and complained with Henry VIII. Only to receive this reply: “the fate of pirates ought never to be a matter of dispute among princes.”

     A ballad published as A True Relation of the Life and Death of Sir Andrew Barton (no one knows how Barton made it a nobleman) tells how King Henry VIII sent the earl of Surrey’s sons, Edward and Thomas Howard, to “reason”with the Barton’s:


When my lord saw Sir Andrew loose

      Lord! In his heart that he was faine:

“Strike on your drums! Spread out you ensigns!

      Sound out your trumpets! Sound out amain!”


“Fight on, my men!” says Sir Andrew Barton

     “Wait, howsoever this gear will sway,

It is my lord Admiral of England

      Is come to seek me on the sea.”


In the 82-stanza ballad the English boarded Barton’s ships, with “eighteen score Scots alive, besides the rest were maimed and slain”:


My lord took a sword in his hand

       And smote of Sir Andrews head:

The Scots stood by did weep and mourn,

      But never a word durst speak or say.


Many  ballads of a later date derive from this one. The celebrated taunt –


Go home, go home, says Andrew Barton

       And tell your King from me

That he may reign king of the dry land

      But I will be king of the sea.


- was credited to Peter > Eston and John > Ward, piratekings in the Mediterranean a 100 years later.


Barton, Henry > Barton, Andrew


Barton, John

In command of the vessel Lion trading with the port of Veere, Zeeland. In England  there was “no navy at all”, so had been granted a lettre de marque after his ships had been robbed by Portuguese rovers, 1476. According to Scottish files was imprisoned at Veere for piracy, 1507. The Scottish king James IV prevented premature death on the block. Father to Andrew > Barton.


Barton, John

Son of John > Barton, also plyng the seas and hindering Portuguese shipping.


Barton, Robert > Barton, Andrew


Baskerville, Thomas – From England.

Sailed in > Hawkins’s fleet, 1595.


Basque, le > Michel aka le Basque


Basset – Flibuster from France.

Gunner with > Levasseur’s men.


Bast, Arie – From Holland.

One of the 23 mutineers of VOC-ship Windhond, > Croese, Alonso; > Baraasser.


Bastfield, Lambert – From Liverpool, England.

Was surprised by Dutch warships while careening his ship in a remote bay in Ireland. 1610


Bastiaensz, Cornelis

In command of two ships from Sealand: Zeelandia and Langebarck. 14 March 1602 attacked the Portuguese carrack San Jago off the island of St. Helena, bound for Portugal with a rich cargo from India. A typical case of robbery, trade and war in one action, and it caused much discussion in Holland about the legitimation of this deed. The Dutch government succeeded in soothing all parties involved (Portugal, Spain, France, Toscane and the Republic herself) by handing out gifts (taken out of the loot). When accepting bribes, whether in money or goods, one sanctions the misdeed.

     Kept San Jago under fire for hours, the Portuguese lost her sails, masts and yards.More than 50 men dead and many wounded. Witness F. Carletti: "Next day [the Sealanders] aimed at the waterline. They used the moment the ship ran high out of the seas which tormented her because she had lost her rudder. In some hours it was all over. The poor ship was as demolished, it looked like she was about to sink, just one more gunshot and I would not have lived to tell you all this. Now the attackers ordered their victims to keep the carrack afloat. Later they would patch up her quite neatly, knowing their trade as seamen. And they said we had to hand them over all our jewels, diamonds or pearls. When they had patched up the carrack they had all Portuguese to disembark, in such a way that many perished - one because he did not know how to swim, the other because the boats were too far away. Yet all the Sealanders had their swords in hand and when there were too many of those who held on to the boatrails than they did not care whose hands they chopped off. But every one who had gold or pearls round the neck, or he or she who held diamonds in the hands, these were all friendly accepted and hoisted aboard the boats and than robbed of everything they had.”

     During the voyage to Sealand in the Netherlands the Sealanders took many of the passengers and crew with them. “There was hardly place to sit, in chamise and shorts, and so we had to sleep, leaning againsted each other, not able to stretch out. And [we were] never allowed to go on deck, only to follow the ways of nature, and never more than one at the time. This lasted for 23 days. As it happened to be these were the days of fasting, and they lived to this tradition in an exemplary way, our food was nothing more than some rice boiled in water, disgusting in taste. From everything we got just nothing, even the ship’s biscuit was full of maggots. Four or five of us, who could not cope with this situation, did die without any sign of mercy of the brave boys, who were feasting on all niceties and delicacies they had found in our carrack.”

    The Sealanders choose the island of Juan Fernando Noronha as a location for repair ere the carrack was taken to Sealand. “The Portuguese were disembarked in their underwear, and checked on jewels. Many swallowed these, specially pearls and some diamonds and rubies. Some hid these in their anuses, and because there were female slaves among them their owners had them hide the jewels in their private parts; maybe an easy way but less secure, for one of them stepped from the ship into the boat and while spreading her legs wider than necesarry given the circumstances, form underneath fell a bunch of diamonds, and this was quickly snatched away by one seaman.” The Portuguese were left behind on the island. Our witness, no Portuguese but  Italian in the service of Toscane, was allowed to join the rovers. “We sailed with the three ships, also the other ship from Holland [Witte Arend (White Eagle) from Amsterdam] who had not joined in during the fight but had gained a rich booty when picking up all the goods the carrack-men had thrown overboard just to keep her from sinking. The sea was covered with silk, skins and fabrics, with carpets and so much more merchandise; with little pain they took aboard what they liked.”

      The witness, F. Carletti from Firenze, who had set sail in 1594 from Cadíz, Spain, on a trading mission around the world, did protest against the theft of all his merchandise. Through interference of the duke of Toscane and the French ambassador in Holland, he managed to keep the Dutch government under pressure. Toscane said Dutch ships would be confiscated in Livorno [Leghorn] so that the commerce in grain would be halted. For this end Carletti stayed in Middelburg but after three years lost patience. He accepted a indemnification of 13.000 florins. July 12 1606 he arrived in Florence, the city he had left in 1591.


Bastías, José Antonio – From Chile.

Sargeant in the Chilean army who joined the rebellion of Miguel José > Cambiazo. 1851.


Bataille – From France.

Commanded Singe from Harfleur during the “Guerre de Cent Ans”, the War of 100 Years, 1402.  “C’est pour l’Etat plus court et plus économique que de construire une marine militaire” (this was cheaper [for a country] and more handy than to build up a regular navy).


Bates, Michael – From Great Britain.

Son of > Bates, Roy


Bates, Roy – From Great Britain (b. 1922)

Owner of a radiostation on a former oil-platform in the North Sea outside British territorial waters. Established a settlement there in 1967 called Princedom Sealand. Sold passports and stamps. Repulsed attacks of trespassers and the British navy with gunfire. In 1978 the princedom was taken over by Alexander G. Achenbach who took his son Michael in custody. Retook the platform the same day. Defended his property against a Dutch assault party lead by Paul Wilking aka Pistolen Paultje. In 2006 a fire did much damage to the platform which was put up for sale one year later.


Bath, William

One of > Rogers’ men.


Battayle, Robert de – From England.

Was tried for taking two merchantships from Sherbourne, 1322. Not punished since he was the lord-mayor of Winchelsea, one of the Cinque Ports.


Baughe, William – From England.

Sailed with Richard > Bishop and Peter > Easton from their base at Leamcon, Ireland, 1608-‘11. Said to be of a  ruthless character. Grabbed one of the crew of a Flemish merchant vessel and “sawed his throte with a dagger untill the blood ran downe” after learning that 3.000 pounds in cash was hidden in this vessel. June 1612: surrendered with his men at Kinsale, Ireland, under a general pardon. Was allowed to keep his booty. Presented the wife of the keeper of the fort at Kinsale with gifts of silverware, blue starch (which could be used to make a waistcoat) and striped canvas, partly because he hoped to marry her daughter.



Active from Nice against English vessels, c. 1800. Probably a privateer, not a pirate.


Baxter, Joh.

One of  > Guyther’s men. In London tried “for taking a Galliot-Hoy (called De Liefde of Rotterdam) laden with 160 tun of wine, and prunes, on the 3d of December last [1680], bound from Bourdeaux to Dort.”



Captain of a ship taken by Spanish men-of-war in 1716.


Bayard, Childley

Met Anne > Bonny when this female pirate still was with her husband. Bayard’s jealous mistress confonted Bonny in a tavern with a cutlass but the latter was too quick for her. Bayard and Bonny then joined > Rackam’s crew.


Bayer, Matthys – From Munster, Germany. (1608-’29)

O/b the Dutch Indiaman Batavia, 1629, when she struck the reefs of the Albrolhos Group off the West Coast of Australia. More mutineer than pirate. Murdered 9 passengers at Robbeneiland where he illicitly lived with a married woman (one of the shipwrecked passengers). Cut someone’s head off. Was sent to the gallows without his right hand. > Cornelisz.



Sailed in consort with David > Digart in the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, 1641.


Bayley, Job > Bailey, Job


Bayning, Paul – Gentleman adventurer from London, England.

Merchant and seafarer. Worked at times for queen Elizabeth and at other times strictly for own commercial interest, amassing gigantic personal fortunes. Owned heavily armed galleons for defensive and offensive actions. With > Lancaster and > Watts raided Pernambuco, Brazil, 1595. In 1600 headed the committee of the “Company of London Merchants trading to the East Indies”.


Bayón, Bartolomeu – From Lusitania.

Sold his services to England. July 1571 appeared on the roads of Puerto de Melenara, Gran Canaria.


Bayram – Barbary corsair from Frankfurt, Germany.

Renegade. Lived in Algiers, ca. 1675.


Bayran Reys – Barbary corsair from Flandres.

Renegade. Lived in Saleh, Marocco. Ca. 1630.


Bayran Reys – Barbary corsair from Holland.

Renegade. Lived in Tunis, 1636.


Bayreuth, Hans

One of > Kniphof’s men. 1525.


Beakes, Herman – From North America. Ca. 1730.


Beard, Walter

20th April 1687: “In from the Bay of Bengal creeps a battered longboat crusted with salt rime, under a patchwork of tattered shirts stretched to a jury rig of boat oars. In the bow crouched a burly, rufous man bearded to the very eyes, chested as an Himalayan, red and naked save for a pair of tarry breeches and a broad flap-brimmed hat tied on with a faded handkerchief stained with ominous marks of bygone slaughter.” This is Ch. Grey’s portrayal of Walter Beard. Maybe “Beard” was not his family- but a nickname. In that night was leading a stealthy attack on a anchored merchantship. “Dismally crouched on the thwarts or miserably sprawled beneath them lie a dozen others as scantily clad, all half dead with thirst and hunger.” The situation is clear: the men are in need, a quite normal part of life as a pirate. Beard growled orders, to which the men grasped the weapons. Down dropped the rude sail, and apart came the jury rig, to b e torn to muffle the rowlocks. In silence the boat drifted beneath the stern of the slumbering ketch. Hooked on to the low stern en hanged to it, clambered aboard, pistol in breeches band and cutlass in mouth. His band swept along either side of the deck, pricking dazed sailormen into the foksel. Cut the cable, had her drag round to the sea. This done set sail. Good Hope went “on the account” to the toast of a “Good voyage and a Bloody one”, hoarsely drunk in cans of arrack by Gentlemen of Fortune.

      As > Eaton’s quartermaster aboard Nicholas met with stormy weather that year off Point Palmyras. Nicholas was dismasted and foundered, with barely time to take to the boats with nothing but some arms and a barrel of water. Before morning all but one of the boats had descended to Davy Jones’s locker. After some days of tossing about arrived off Balasore, and found ketch Good Hope just in wait for them.

      Was elected quartermaster again, Duncan > Mackintosh captain. Proceeded to the Straits of Malacca for “pirate haunts and cruising grounds”, took and plundered some junks from China and Manila, then cruised into the Bay of Siam and off the coast of Borneo. On his way home attacked and captured by a man-of-war, taken to Cape Corse on the West-African Guinea coast and awarded the sun-drying cure (that is: hanged).


Beare, John - Flibuster.

October 1684 sailed with a commission from Nevis to chase pirates. Arrested for having taken a Spanish vessel. Was sent to England to stand trial, returned in 1686. Renewed his commission, again arrested for piracy. Acquitted. Renewed his commission, this time to chase a Spanish pirate off Danish island San Tomas. February 1687 took a vessel from New England and other vessels bringing them to Havana, Cuba. Entered Spanish service. His crew refused to sail under Spanish colours and was replaced by mulattoes. Married a girl from Jamaica who joined him dressed as a man. In 1693 in command of slaveship Hannibal of London. Deserted piratelife to join the Spanish fleet. In 1695 changed alliance, joining the French, sailing from Petit-Goâve.


Beare, Mrs.

Wife of > Beare, “a strumpet that he used to carry with him in man’s apparel”.


Beaubriand-l’Evesque – Corsair de St. Malo, France. Ca. 1695.


Beauchamp, Richard – From England.

Aka Earl of Warwick. Made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, being a very pious man. And also a violent man. From Beauchamp Pageant, a pictorial record of his life, we learn that his ships attacked any sail around. Later to become Joan of Arc’s jailer at Rouen, France. Noblemen indulged in piracy when this was convenient to them.


Beauchêne > Chevalier, Robert


Beaulieu – Flibuster from France.


Beaumont, Jan van – From the Netherlands.

One of > Willem IV’s commanders. Joined his master’s plunder expeditions against the bishop of Utrecht, first half of the 14th century. Sailed from Enkhuizen, Holland to Friesland where he was defeated by the Frisians at Stavoren. However severely wounded escaped with his life.


Beaumont de Rogers > Rogers, John


Beauregard, Charles-François le Vasseur de – Flibuster from France.

In 1683 a flibusterfleet of  eight ships under command of Laurens de > Graaf planned to attack Santiago de Cuba. Sieur de Beauregard was the stand-in of > Grammont to direct the operations on land. But at the rendez-vous at Cap Dame Marie quarreled with the flibusters. The fleet left in disorder and De Graaf changed the target (but also Carthagena fell through).

     At the end of the “flibuste”entered the French navy. Immediate subordinate of De Graaf, then governor of Cap Français in St. Domingue (the Western part of Hispaniola), 1692-4. Prowled the Eastern shores of Jamaica in April 1694, took a New England ship but saw his prize reconquered by HMS Falcon the next day. Commanded a ship in > Ducasse’s fleet totalling 22 sail and more than 3.000 men (about half of them under De > Graaf) which assaulted Jamaica, June 24 1694, in “a fresh gale”. This is more warfare than necessary for pirate activities so it is suffice to mention that during the raids inland Beauregard commanded the van, while De Graaf brought up the main body of the French forces: “Tout le monde étant à terre on marcha d’abord aux Ennemis. Beauregard avoit l’avant-garde, où étoient les Flibustiers, & de Graff suivoit avec les Habitans (...) & Beauregard y fut blessé au pied.” Was wounded, August 1694. Despite having spent nearly two months and wreaking total havoc throughout this English colony, the flibusters were not content with the spoils. In October of the same year Beauregard prevented a landfall at Petit-Goâve in St. Domingue by three Englsh men-of-war, a fireship and two barques.


Beauregard, Gugliemo > Guadagni di Beauregard, Gugliemo


Beavin, Thomas – From England. Shoemaker.

Sailed from Studland Bay and Welsh ports. Successfull. Captured by royal ships, tried and hanged in London, 1583.


Beck, William

Aka Berk or Burke. Quartermaster in > Kidd’s Adventure Galley and Adventure Prize (ex-Queddah Merchant). Left the ship at St. Thomas. Visited Kidd in Newgate.


Becke, George Louis – From Sydney, Australia. (1856-1913)

As a boy dreamed of becoming a pirate, and when sailing with Bully > Hayes became one when he was 18. That is what he said. But he was a good short story-writer and a better story-teller and no one ever knew that what he told us was or is true. His By Reef and Palm ( 1894) went through many editions and is still reprinted. It was the first of some 30 volumes and 6 historical novels. Did not sail four years with Hayes, was on Leonora’s roster for 57 days as it turned out to be, and most of these days were spent ashore at one or another island. In Samoa one Mrs. Macfarland accused Becke of stealing the ketch E.A. Williams, which he and Hayes had abandoned on a reef at Mili, worm-eeaten as the poor vessel was. Was put in confinement and hauled off to Australi to stand trial as a proper pirate. Fortunately had kept a copy of the power-of-attorney, proving him being within in rights in disposing of the ship according to his best judgement. Thus cleared his name of piracy, free to move on to a score of further Pacific adventures.


Beckler, Edward

Was charged with the death of William > Ashmore during the naval battle at the Pocomoke, Chesapeake Bay, April 23, 1635. Also > Belson, John.


Bedel – Buccaneer.


Bedford, Gerard


Beele, Jan de – From Holland. > Baraasser, Willem


Beer, Matthys

One of the culprits in VOC-ship Batavia, 1629. > Cornelisz, Jeronymus


Bègue, le – Flibuster. Fictional.


Behar, Lass-el - From Rabat, Maroc. Fictional.

According to legend built a tall tower at Cape Marabata, in order to hide his treasures within its walls. Fell in love with a mermaid or, in Arabic: a jinniyeh (female genie). Unable to gain her love followed her into the sea, “where he sleeps under the waves between the Tarik Mountain [Gbraltar] and Cape Tres Forcas. He will not waken until that day when men will be judged for their actions and the earth will only be a shadow of a shadow which will finnaly disappear.”


Beheim, Frans - From Veere, Sealand.

Aka Behm aka Böhm. Cruised off Antwerp, waiting to waylay English merchant ships. From 1537 in service of robber knight B. von Esens, with a piratesettlement in Spiekeroog, one of the Eastfrisian Waddenislands (14 km²). People believed the goods brought there were not stolen but gotten as “A Gift of the Sea”. In command of three ships. May 28 1539 received the following commission:

     "Wir Balthasar, zu Esens, Stedesdorp und Herr von Wittmund, bekennen, dass wir gegenwärtigen Briefzeiger, unsern lieben getreuen Frantz Behm, zu der See abgefertigt haben, auf unsere Feinde, nämlich der stadt von Bremen und Dantzigk, wo der die nach seinen höchsten vermögen beschädigen und crencken mag, dieselben in unsere Haven, Gebiet und Lande zu bringen und mit seinen inhabenden Völkere in unsere Landen zu buiten und parten nach alden Seerechten.

      "Ist derhalven unser freundlich bitten en gonstiges begeren, obgenannten Franz Behmen, wo der in fremde haven und stromen durch water und ander nootdorfs Schutz suchen möchte, ihn um unserst Willen vry, veilich, ungehindert passiren lassen, welches wyr dergleichen umb die Euren zu tun geneyget sein."

      In which the knitght stated Beheim to be a truthful and loyal citizen, a seaman of his tgradfe, and was permitted to fight his enemies, and, when in need, not to be hindered by anyone and to be treated kindly in foreign harbours and seas. Von Esens spoke of his people ["seinen Völkern"] as if he was a souvereign, in reality he was a man without esteem, his lettres de marque of commissions were not respected.

      Beheim stole ten ships in the river Weser, in view of the city of Bremen. The ships could not be considered as being enemies. When active on the coast of Frisia Spiekeroog was burnt down by an army of Bremen as a reprisal. Autumn 1539 taken prisoner in the Ossebalg with his three ships and all his men. Escaped with some but had to surrender in the mouth of the Hunte-river since he had no weapons to defend himself. Executed with his subordinates. The 71 heads were nailed on a long bench, as a warning for others.


Beieren, Jan van – From the Netherlands.

Tried to rob his cousin Jacoba of her lands. Equipped ships from Dordrecht and Den Briel to harass shipping between England and the Netherlands. 1417.


Beke, Jan van der  - Seabeggar from Antwerpen, Spanish Netherlands. 1566-’8


Bekir Reys – Barbary corsair.

Son of a Greek renegade and owner of 2 galleys of the port of Algiers. Commanded a  22-gun sailing ship in January 1647, was captured off Sicily by 6 galleys of the knights of Malta. Slaved at a oar of a galley ‘till he was ransomed. Misused his galleyslaves thereafter. Perished  with his galleys in a violent storm, 1652.


Belain, Pierre – From France.

After losing a fight with a Spanish galleon blundered into St. Christopher, 1624, the first pirate settlement in the West Indies, established 20 Englishmen lead by the merchant Th. Warner. Helped him to dispel the Carib Indians and divided the island for agriculture (tabacco).



Aka Bill Gallager. One of > Gasparilla’s men. Three small keys at the entrance of Charlotte Harbor in the Gulf of Mexico are named The Gallager Keys. Several chests with treasure have been found there, and fanatic treasure-hunters still believe it worth going over every one of these keys carefully, “as you could easily hit something big”.


Bell, John

One of Edward > Low’s men. Drowned when the ship during careening, toppled over, 1722. “The vessel pitched her Masts to the Ground, in about 6 Fathom Water, and turn’d her Keel out of Water; but as her Hull filled, it sunk.”


Bell, Jonathan

Captain/owner of Maria with Columbian letters of marque. Operated in Mexican and Floridan waters. Ca. 1816 took a seaman on board by the name of Charles > Gibbs. Spent two months cruising around Cuba and in the Gulf of Mexico. The crew became dissatisfied and a mutiny arose. Under Gibbs’ leadership the crew took possession of the ship and landed Bell and his mate on an island near Pensacola, Florida.


Bellamy, Charles – From England.

With three ships under his command raided New England, New Brunswick and the Carolina’s, summer 1716, but began as a wrecker in the West Indies. Set up a fortified base at the Bay of Fundy  to plunder fishing and trading vessels off the S-coast of New Foundland. Attacked a wrong ship once, being a French man of war who mauled his ship killing 36 men. Raided fishing vessel from a new campsite at Placentia Bay. Often confused with namesake Samuel > Bellamy.


Bellamy, Samuel – From Devon, England. (ca. 1689-1717)

A most unique and outspoken pirate, genuine paradigm of the libertarian freedom-loving sea rover. Apparently a charismatic man, and famous for his rhetorically splendid rants with which historian Ch. Johnson (D. Defoe) credits him. Only a novellist, pamphleteer and pirate-expert as D. Defoe was, could have made such moven speeches for heroes like Bellamy and/or heroines like > Bonny, or could have copied them if Bellamy really had such considerable gifts for public speaking. It would be wrong to deny the ideological content of some pirate thinking.. His views were socialistic, when saying that the working class has to submit “to be governed by laws which rich men have made for their own security”. And: “They vilify us, the scoundrels do, when there is the only difference that they rob the poor under cover of the law, forsooth, and we plunder the rich under the protection of our courage. [addressing a captured crew:] Had you not better make one of us than sneak after these villains for employment?”

     Tried to raise a Spanish wreck hoping to salve the bags of silver in the hold. It could well be that he was not involved in such labor himself but rather in the 1716 assault made by Henry > Jennings on the camp of salvors working on the wrecked 1715 Spanish treasure fleet, off the SouthEast coast of Florida. Meeting with no success and “being at odds with honest mechants and shipmasters” decided with Paul > Williams to “go on the account”. Fell in with > Hornigold, whose crew included Edward “Blackbeard” > Teach. Was elected captain when Hornigold left. Said: “My commission is large and I made it myself.” Captured vessels near the Virgin Islands, in company of a vessel under command of La > Bouche. Off  St. Croix took a French ship from Quebec. After sighting Saba island came up with two ship and now hoisted flags with Death’s-head and Cross-Bones. Both vessels were captured and the larger, called Sultana, was converted for use as a pirate ship. Gave command of his sloop to his quartermaster Paul Williams. Roamed the Caribbean. In the three pirate ships cruising together there were 80 pirates and 130 “forced”men. Used an islet in Trellis Bay on Beef Island as a base. The islet is now known as Bellamy Cay.

      Early 1717 a storm seperated the two British pirates from their French colleague. In February took up pursuit of slaveship Whydah, 300 tons and 18 guns, returning to London with gold, ivory, sugar and indigo. Captured her after a vigorous chase which carried predator and victim from the Windward Passage to Long Island in the Bahamas. Decided to prefer her for his activities, so added 10 guns to her from Sultana. Sailed her to Virginia with Williams. The money taken from Whydah was said to be 20.000 pounds sterling. Of this amount 50 pounds was put into each of 180 bags and each pirate was handed one. One has to remember that, whether honest seman or pirates, seachests were left unlocked as a sign that the owner trusted his shipmates.

      Then fell in with and plundered Tanner Frigate then turned the bows toward the Virginia Capes. Four ships were pillaged on the way. One of these four, Anne Galley, was added to the pirate squadron under command of her master > Montgomery, denying her crew a release but rather obliged them to accompany him to assist in careening his ship. A severe storm forced him far to the North. Sailed with a small fleet of pirate craft from the Bay of Placentia in New Foundland for Nantucket Shoals where he seized Mary Anne, a whaling vessel. Set course for Rhode Island, taking two more prizes. It was then that he claimed having “as much authority to make War on the whole World, as he who has a hundred Sail of Ships at Sea, and an Army of 100.000 men in the Field and this my Conscience telle me.”

      One of his pirate vessels was wrecked during the morning of May 18, 1717, off the coast of Orleans, Massachusetts, due to heavy fog and wild weather. 7 crewmen survived the disaster. Whydah smashed into a sandbar 3 sm South of the life-saving station at Wellfleet on Cape Cod. 2 of the 146 men aboard survived but were captured. And hanged. On Friday November 15th, 1717 at “Charleston Ferry within the flux and reflux of the sea”, together with five survivors from the wrecked prize ship. It is said that god himself took heart to their sorry fate: “By the indefatigable pains of a pious and learned divine, who constantly attended them, they [the pirates] were made sensible of and truly penitent for the enormous crimes they had been guilty of.” This all because of two pirates, Dutch protestants, who clutched psalmbooks and sang to everyone’s heart delight.

     Nothing of the cargo was recovered until 1984, when professional treasure-hunter B. Clifford from Cape Cod brought up part of Whydah’s booty, said to be worth many millions of American dollars. Finds also included weapons and even the ship’s bell.


Belle, Robert de – Seabeggar.

Captain of a vessel in the seven ships-Channel Fleet, took all ships in sight. Summer 1571.


Belle-Tête – Buccaneer from France.

In between pirating took to cattlehunting in the Isle of Hispaniola. Finally a habitan on the isle of St. Christophe. Hard on his “engagé’s” (indentured servants), and hard for himself. Had 300 servants for him working their asses off. “Il haussa les épaules. ‘J’ai été engagé moi aussi. Et battu. J’ai tenu bien. Qu’ils fassent comme moi. ’ ‘’ (He shrugged, “’ve been a servant myself. And beaten. I held out. That ‘s what they must do too.”) Broke a leg on a remote spot. Was there all by himself. Someday someone found him, eaten by white ants.


Bellerophone – From Greece.

Travelling hero, may have begun as a local champion (-phontes meaning killer). According to Homer’s Iliad sent East from the territory of Argos (in the Mediterranean Sea) to a kingdom in Lycia (SW Asia), dispatched on deadly adventures, including the killing of the firebreathing Chimaera: part-goat, part-lion and part-snake. Succeeded “trusting in portents of the gods”, with the help of Pegasus, the winged horse. Sited at Corinth. Became the champion of noble families in Lycia and took root at places which claim to occupy the sites of his exploits in Homer. Died while “wandering in the Aleian plain” [the Cilician plain round Tarsus].


Belleville, Jeanne de – From Bretagne, France.

Seeking revenge after her husband (accused of being a English spy during the war of succession) had been executed (1345) in Paris, and his head displayed on the ramparts of the ducal capital of Nantes. Hurried there with her children, sold her jewelry, bought and outfitted three ships. Cruised along the coast of Normandy, attacking French vessels and reported always the first to board. She still is seen standing in bad, spooky nights, amid the ruins of a village with a sword in one hand and a flaming torch in the other. One of her sons, Olivier de Clisson, eventually became Constable of France and, defeating and killing his French opponent, ended the war of succession in 1364, so making his mother’s vengeance complete.


Belle-Voix – From France

One of Olivier > Levasseur’s men. Had a good voice. “Curieusement l’un d’eux que les autres nommaient Belle-Voix entonna un Ave maria stella que tous reprenaient en choeur.’’ (Curiously one of them called Beautiful Voice sang a Ave Maria to everyone’s heart delight)


Bellingham – From England.

Commanded Minikin, as able seaman served one > Callys. 1580.



One of > North’s men in Madagascar.


Belson, John

Crewmember of the sloop Cockatrice under command of Ratcliffe > Warren. Died together with Warren, William Dawson and William Ashmore during the first naval engegement between English-speaking peoples in the New Worldhand while boarding the trading pinnace St. Margaret. Chesapeake Bay, 23 April 1635.


Beluche, René

Aka Renato aka El Bizarro. One of the captains sailing from Barataria but in 1815 not connectede with the > Lafitte’s. Took part in the Battle of New Orleans, 1815. Also with Lafitte in Galveston, then left to sail with Simon > Bolívar’s revolutionary forces. Patrolled the coasts of  Central and South American coasts in a brig flying the flag of “The United Colonies” (Venezuela & New Granada). Very smart in taking Spanish ships laden with sugar or slaves, in this way earning his alias. Joined Bolívar in a voyage for Haïti, 1819, taking overall command when Bolívar fell ill. As master of a fast schooner in the navy of the new nation of Colombia, fought a seabattle in the Lake of Maracaïbo, July 24 1823, which ended well for him. Raided Puerto Cabello, November 10th. For “en ambos heroiocos y definitivos sucesos para la emancipación de Sudamérica, Renato Beluche había tenido una destacada partipación.’’ (for both heroic and definitive successes in favor of the liberation of South America, Renato Belche holds a principal, significant position)  Lived in South America the life of an honored man of influence until his death in 1860.


Belvin, James – Bosun.

One of Gow’s men. Said to be a good sailor but a bloodthirsty type of guy. Hanged at Wapping, June 1725.


Beme, Francis > Beheim, Frans


Ben el Kadi – Barbary corsair.

One of > Barbarossa’s captains.


Benache > Aïssa, Abdullah Ben


Benavides, Vincent

Active in Central American waters. Ca. 1800.


Benbroke, James

Aka Benbrook. A seaman of the sloop Rachel, bound from New York to Pennsylvania with about 50 passengers, was taken without opposition by > Fly, 1726. Was forced to go as a pirate in Fly’s Fame’s Revenge. Tried and acquitted.


Bendall, George

Aka Bendeall. Had his headquarters in New Providence, Bahama’s. Probably the same as > Bendall, James.


Bendall, James (1700-1718)

Was offered a pardon by the English king and indeed “received the benefit of His Majesty’s most gracious pardon [...] bestowed to deliver from his former unlawful course of life”. But could not resist the call of freedom and carried on his piracies around the Bahama’s and Virgin Islands. Was captured at the island of Exuma after having “feloniously” taken three ships: Mary, Batchelor’s Adventure and Lancaster, “their cargoes and tackle; and further that they had marooned James Kerr, merchant, and others on Green Cay.” When on trial asked Kerr (aka Carr) to be recalled to speak for him. Under oath Kerr declared that he “heard the prisoner [Bendall] say that he wished he’d begun the life sooner for he thought it a pleasant one, that is the life of a pirate. He also said that he had a strong inclination to have smothered John Gravers Esq his Majesty’s Collector for the Islands as he lay ill and weak in his bed for the prisoner was for a short time a servant of mr. Graves before he shipped himself for the intended voyage and joined the other prisoners in their mutiny and piracy.”

     On Friday 12 December 1718 a gallows was erected in New Providence, Bahama’s, for a hanging of 9 pirates. Woodes > Rogers, now governor, captain-general and judge of the local vice-admiralty (having debated the several circumstances of the cases), sat among the auhorities awaiting the spectacle. A small crowd, composed of seamen, women and ex-pirates, milled about. A party of 100 soldiers escorted the condemned men to  the fatal spot. They were charged with “Mutiny, Felony, Piracy”. James Bendall was totally unrepentant, behaved in a sullenand moody manner, his last words were that he repeated he had “wish’d he had begun the Life [of a pirate] sooner, for he thought it a pleasant one.”


Beneke, Pawel – Likedeler

In 1473 pope Sixtus IV wrote a letter to the town of Lübeck: “With fiat and support of several Hansa-towns the notorious pirate Paulus Beneke has taken the galleon of captain Sermach. In this action 13 Florentines died pitifully and a 100 saw themselves badly wounded. Merchandise and goods valued at circa 30.000 goldflorins were taken forcefully. A large part was divided amongst the pirates, and captain Francesco Sermach and some others were enprisoned in the ship. All others were robbed of their properties, and half dead dragged to the waters of these searovers, who sold everything for their own advantage.” This galley or galleon Saint Thomas was the property of a citizen of Florence, Th. Portinari, Counsellor of the duke of Burgundy in Brugge, and other Florentinos, and loaded with extremely valueable goods of Burgundian, English and French merchantmen.

    The vessel was taken though there was no war between the Hansa and Burgundy, and she was decked out “myt unsen wapenen unde bannyren gecleet were alse uns tobehorende” (with our arms and  banners according to our heraldry). For Beneke did not care. When he had heard of this huge galleon fitting out in Brugge, Flanders, for her voyage to Italy: “For Rome for my part, or for this celestial Jerusalem, I don’t care.” Saint Thomas was much bigger than his caravel Peter von Danzig, but he scolded his crew for old women if they would not attack this precious prize. Now he took her to Stade, with the permission of the archbishop of Bremen. Sold her there, as he had done with earlier prizes. Saint Thomas’s cargo mounted up to a value of $ 5.000.000.-, there was a beautiful Hans Memling-painting in one of the holds, representing “The Last Judgement”.

     Retired from the sea with his part in the loot and settled in Danzig (now in Poland).



Operated in the Pacific ocean, ca. 1820.


Beniowsky, Maurycy > Benjadowsky, Moritz August von


Benito, Don – From Spain.

In command of a guardia de la costa (coast guard vessel) called St. Francis de la Vega with piratical inclinations, commissioned by the governor of Cuba. Manned by a crew of 60 Spaniards, 18 French and 18 English, obeying to the oreders of two captains: an Englishman (Richard > Holland) as well as a Spaniard. Took several ships in the month of June, 1724. Fell in with John and Mary wearing English colors (“God damn you, Strike, you English dogs, Strike!”) and stripped her of 76 men slaves, some golddust, four big guns and small arms and “about 400 Galleons of Rum, besides his Provisions and Stores, computed in all to 1500 l. Sterling”. In consort of John and Mary encountered and took the brigantine Prudent Hannah bound for Virginia with rum, molasses, hops and dry goods, June 5. Using this newly built craft also as a consort captured a ship called Godolphin the very next day. Confronted with HMS Enterprize transferred his captives to John and Mary and released her, turning Eastward with the other two prizes. On board Prudent Hannah however, one of the pressed man, an Italian called Mark Legaur, steered the vessel away from St. Francis de la Vega, fell upon the prizemaster that night and killed him after a desperate fight. With two of his fellow crewmen Legaur forced the prize crew of four to surrender and sailed the ship to New York. Three of the pirates were executed there and then.


Benjowsky, Moritz (Maurycy) August von – From Poland.

Born in the Russian part of Poland. Partook in a uprising to liberate Poland from Russian rule. Banned from the Russian court in 1771 and exiled to Siberia. Showed up in Kamtchaska’s port Bolscheretzk stealing the galeot St. Peter and Paul. Leading an adventurous life in Germany and France. Signed on for the French colonial army and was sent to Madagascar. Lost control of his wit, ending his life in Madagascar’s jungle living from what nature gave him. Tortured by homesickness for his native country. Was found dead in 1786, standing erect against a black cliff, the empty sockets gazing in the distance. The (once Dutch) island of Mauritius is not named after him.


Heimweh steht jeden an,

Am edelsten stumm

Wer drüber reden kann,

Kommt nicht darin um.


Benn, Tom – Buccaneer.

Ran a large tavern in Port Royal, Jamaica in the 1680’s, including a brothel with a theater for porn shows. And a pit for cock-fights.


Bennet, John – Freebooter.

Aka Benett. Commanded the 15-tons Virgin Queen, 30 men. One of Henry > Morgan’s captains in the overland raid on Panama, 1670. Was in command of a 25-man Jamaican twomaster when on the roads of St. Domingue. Intercepted the 50-ton frigate Buen Jésus de las Almas (Good Jezus of the Souls), April 1675. Took her moneysafe with 46.471 pieces of 8, the payroll for that island’s soldiers. Spain protested but England pointed out that there were Frenchmen on board Bennet’s ship carrying “a French commission and [Bennet] had fought under French colours, [and] had the prize condemned and adjudged in French ports.” Wicked ways. The complaint was rejected.


Bennet, Edward > Bonito, Benito


Bennet, William – From England. Soldier.

Deserted from Fort Loyal, Falmouth, Marne,to join > Poound’s company, 1689. Round. Died in prison in Boston, Massachusetts.


Benningerhof, Albrecht van – Seabeggar from Gorcum, the Netherlands.


Benoict, Jehan – Seabeggar from Hofkerke, Flanders.


Benquey – Corsair from Bordeaux, France.

Captain of the corvette Dorade, 1813. Rather a privateer than a pirate.


Bequel, Philippe – Flibuster from La Rochelle, France.

One of > Gabaret’s and > Beaulieu’s men. Captain in 1659. Obained a lettre de marque from Jamaica’s military governor to chase Spanish shipping. Active from Tortuga Island. Probably partook in > Nau’s expeditions, 1666-8. Lost his vessel, joined Vauquelin’s crew. Got married in Tortuga. With Vauquelin (Mozes van > Klijn) served as pilots in D’Estrées’ fleet. Asked for a position in the French navy, which request was denied.


Berchem, Pieter van – Seabeggar from Brabant, the Spanish Netherlands.


Berchmans, Wensel – Seabeggar from Gorcum, the Spanish Netherlands.

Aka De Zwarte (Black).


Berents, Douwe – Seabeggar from Leeuwarden, Friesland.


Berg, G.

One of the 23 mutineers in VOC-ship Windhond, ® Croese, Alonso; ® Baraasser, Willem.


Bergh, Jacob Janssen van den – From Holland. 17th century.


Berghem, Peter van – Seabeggar from Breda, the Netherlands. 1566-‘8.


Bergues, Louis de – Seabeggar. Master mariner.

Brother of > Dolhain. Did so much harm to neutral shipping that he became personanongrata for the Dutch as well the English.


Berk, William

One of > Kidd’s men in Adventure Galley.


Bernanos > Bournano


Bernard > Smith


Bernard, Antoine – Flibuster from France.

In command of the 2-gun vessel Prophète Daniel. After the sack of Vera Cruz with De > Graaf heard about a buccaneer gathering at Roatán, abandoned his plan to go turtle hunting with Pierre d’> Orange but was captured by the Spaniards at Little Cayman Island, 4 August, 1683. Was returned to Vera Cruz and confronted with the townspeople. Probably recognised and found guilty but there is no record of what became of him.


Bernard, Nicolas – Seabeggar from Doornik, Flandres.

Present at the taking of the port of Den Briel, 1572, the base of the succesfull Dutch rebellion against Spain.


Bernardi, Philip – Merchant from London, England.

Together with sir > Rich sent to the Indian Ocean to commit piracy there. The ships Francis and Lion left England in January 1617 and reached the coast of India about August of that year. In March 1618 the two were caught rummaging an Indian ship from which they would have obtained an “exceedingly” rich booty. From the report of captain Pring who intervered: “The Mogul ship had in her about 1.000 persons with 9 tons of silver and other goods. The two ships had already taken out of her 1.135 pounds in pieces of 8 and 600 weight of opium which I restored. Both ships were extreme wormeaten, and their provision of stores so much exhausted that we were unable to fully furnish them without unduly disfurnishing ourselves. Their poor mariners were entertained by the month and knew not whither bound until they came South of the Canaries. They are all stout seamen bred to the sea and will do you good service therefore are entertained by me in your service.”


Bernardin de St. Pierre, J.H. – From France. (1737-1814)

After a roving life tried to establish a pirate settlement on the Isle of Mauritius, once Île de France, 1768. It is not sure at all whether he had been a pirate or not before he obtained “un brevet de capitaine-ingénieur du roi” for this island. Failed, however, and later wrote a book flavoured with his experiences of the island: Paul et Virginie, Paris 1787, inspired by the works of the French author J.J. Rousseau.


Bernesten, Diderik – From Hamburg, Germany. Ca. 1458.


Berntsonn-Lambert, Jonas – From Sweden. 18th century.


Berry, Charlotte de – From England.

Aka Dick, Captain Rudolph. Drawn to “the seedier side of life” married a 30 years old sailor called Jack Melees aka Jack Jib at the age of 18. Followed her husband to his navy ship, she disguised as a man, pretending to be his younger brother called Dick. Said to have fought side by side in some sea battles. Beginning to love the life at sea their ways seperated (it is said that Jack Melees died after being “flogged through the fleet”: was rowed in a boat from ship to ship, being whipped with the cat-o’-nine-tails at each vessel; this cat had at least three knots in each flail to increase the suffering of the victim). Was forced aboard a ship bound for the Gold Coast, Africa. Led a mutiny and turned to a life of piracy, renaming the ship Trader, raiding vessels all along the African coast under the alias of “Captain Rudolph”. There is a story connected with her untimely death after a shipwreck, cannibalism, rescue and a fatal fight with another pirate, > Sandano. No date given.


Bersey, Jacques – Seabeggar from England. Ca. 1570.


Bersi, Hrust

Active in the Baltic Sea in consort with > Rolf. Ca. 880.


Bertagno, Lupo – From Catalunha, Spain.

Commanding a fuste (small galley) that took valuable booty from Venetian cities and shipping. Took possession of a island in the South Archipelago of Greece when Ottoman troops gained territory after the year of 1453. However, the inhabitants expelled him and looked for other protectors. Active from 1452 to 1460.



One of > Roberts’men.


Beseke, Bernd – From Braunschweig, Germany. Tailor-merchant.

Citizen of Hamburg in 1525. Designed & produced ornate clothing for priests, clothed himself in fineries, lived, as a matter of fact, a rich and fanciful life. Also made enemies, therefore (1535) accepted a position as a landlord of Neuwerk Castle, a outpost watchtower on a border of the Waddenzee for keep the shipping along the German Bight in check. For reasons only known to himself one day took to piracy, 1536. A ewer from Stade, loaden with tissues and other priceless cloth, anchored for provisions. Boarded the ewer, killed the 4-man crew and had his Hamburger soldiers loot the hold. It turned out to be he had forgotten to kill a little girl, hidden in the steerage. When the pirates had set the ewer adrift she escaped to tell the gruesome story. There followed a real siege, and at last Beseke gave himself up. Hamburg mayor Hulpe sent him to the wheel, August 2, 1536. Beseke felt insulted. He had reached for the stars in his efforts to become a powerfiul lord, admired by many, and now must end in terible pains, despised by everybody. Pleaded for clemency. The mayor changed his verdict: beheading was allright with him, with the head on a pole as a warning for others. Again pleaded for his life. Again the mayor changed the punishment: beheading, yes, but now the head was permitted to be buried along with the dead body.


Besneck, John

Had, with Peter > Cornelian, deserted a French ship to join > Rackam. Was present during the capture of a schooner, 19 October 1720. On trial in Jamaica one month later claimed to have been “forced into piracy”. Testified “under the discretion and protection of the Crown”, which meant he would be released in exchange for first-hand evidence against his ex-colleagues. His intimate stories of life aboard Rackam’s sloop were followed with open-mouthed interest by the court. Recalled: “Mary >Read and Tom > Deane had a cabin for themselves, although on hot nights, they would lie together in dark corners of the deck.” And so on.


Best, Jan – Seabeggar from England.


Best, Richard – From England.

Sailed his 130-ton Jewel in consort of John > Myddleton and Wm. > Lane (all commanders of ships owned by sir John > Watts) to the Caribbean in the 1590’s.  Took in this position a caravel off Havana, Cuba, 1594. Then sailed to the Bay of Mexico where he laid his hands on an abandoned hulk carrying dyes, drugs, silk and gems. His report to owner and government understated this prize’s real value.


Betagh, William – From Ireland.

Captain of the marines of George > Shelvocke’s Speedwell, 1718. When the articles were made up ordained that “Every Man aboard a Prize found drunk, or in any indecent Act with a white or black Woman, to be Punished according to the Nature of his Offence.” Was stationed in prizeship Mercury under the command of Simon > Hatley and conspired to seperate from Shelvocke. Said they had captured loot enough to “set themselves up as gentlemen for the rest of their lives, but the owners [Speedwell’s] woiuld take most of that.” This resolution was adopted. The idea was to sail to the coasts of Asia and gain the riches of the Orient. In this the men were frustrated when Mercury was approached by a Spanish warship. Hatley and Betagh dressed themselves in some of the Spanish clothes they had found below, confined the imprisoned passengers in the great cabin, hoisted Spanish colors, and allowed only Indians and Negroes out on deck. The charade did not succeed, the Mercury-men were taken prisoner (March, 1720) and treated roughly. Betagh was assumed to be a Roman Catholic and was received friendly. At Callao, Peru, the sixteen rovers appeared before a judge’s court charge with piracy. Only Hatley was found guilty. Most of the English embraced the Catholic Faith, Betagh accepting a job in a Spanish frigate. Returned home in 1721, one year earlier than Shelvocke. Wrote A Voyage Round the World. Being an Account of a Remarkable Enterprize, begun in the Year 1719, chiefly to cruise on the Spaniards in the great South Ocean. (London, 1728) In which he mentions a tribe of Californian Indians where “any man may lie with the women for a rusty knife, or a porringer of thick milk.” Betagh  was not short of opinions. He said that Shelvocke deliberately wrecked his ship at Juan Fernández, in order to go “on the account” with another ship than one provided by merchant-sponsors. However, the outlook for the crew on the beach was so bleak that no sane commander would have attempted such a ploy. Claimed that Shelvocke was a fraudster. His claims were denied.


Betcharp – Flibuster from England.

A “grand ténor” among the flibustercaptains in Jamaica, 1684. Sailed with > Tocard, > Duchesne, > Markham and the Dutchmen > Willems and > Tristan in a fleet under de leadership of Joseph > Bannister to go and plunder Carthagena, their rendez-vous being in the islands of the San Blas group in the Gulf of Darien. The expedition did not find > Grammont’s 700 buccaneers there. Their ships lay abandoned in the islands. One year later commanded 100 “Les Enfants Perdus” (the Forlorn), the avant-garde who to storm the town of Campeche, July 6. Lost no more than four men during this succesfull attack.


Béthencourt, Jean de  - From Normandy, France.

Chamberlord of the king of France. Responsible for the first European settlement in the Canary Islands. 1402.


Bevell, John – Seabeggarcaptain from England. 1571.


Bevins, Robert

One of > Roberts’ men, taken out of Cornwall Galley at Calabar, October 1721.


Bianco, James – From Italy. Ca. 1303.

Pillaged and plundered Venetian shipping in the Levant. In concert with Percival de la > Turcha.


Bibby, John

Mate. Enforced from the snow Barbados Merchant by > Spriggs, October 1724.


Bibby, Robert

On board the sloop Margaret when this ship was taken by > Teach off Crab Island, December 1717. Teach “took the cargo of cattle and hogs, arms, books and instruments (...) and one Robert Bibby voluntarily took on with them.”



Famous captain preying in the 1600’s in the waters off the coasts of Marocco and the Mediterranean.


Biciaki – From Crete, Greece.

A corsair raiding the Turks from Naxos, 1827. Thereafter turned to piracy.


Biddale, Robert

One of John > Martyn’s men in the English ship Swann that took Mary, December 1599. Mary was loaden, among others, with “19 bags of Rialles of plate [reales of silver], every bag containing 100 crowns. And 400 and threscore crowns in gold left from the sale of goods outward carried, hid in a secrete place of the ship.”


Biddy, Robert – Frpm Liverpool, England.

Sailor in the sloop Margaret of St. Christopher when boarded and taken after a single shot over the bow by Edward > Thatch and > Bonnet, December 5, 1717. The pirates “did not seem to want provisions” but did seize a number of live cattle and hogs as well as books [on navigation], instruments, cutlasses and firearms.” Blackbeard’s vessel was “a 36-gun Dutch built guinea man, manned by a crew of 300,” Margaret’s master later reported. Three men were forced to serve aboard the pirate. Biddy joined Blackbeard (“a tall sparse man with a very black beard which he wore very long”) voluntarily.


Bie, Andries Pietersz – Seabeggar from Dordrecht, Holland. Captain. 1570.


Big Brew

Member of the New York “Charlton Street Gang”. Stealing goods and robbing people from ships on the North River, raiding them from rowboats. Climbed onto targeted ships by her anchor ropes or chains. Fenced their loot in New York’s pawnshops.


Big Mike

Member of the New York “Charlton Street Gang”, like > Big Brew, Flabby > Brown and > Sadie the Goat, c. 1869.


Bigford – Buccaneer.

> Morgan’s surgeon Richard > Browne wrote in his journal “I was eating my dinner with the rest when the maninmast blew out and fell upon Captains Aylett and Bigford and others and knocked them on the head. I saved myself by getting astride the mizzenmast.” This was the incident in which Morgan’s flagship Oxford blew herself up on January 2d, 1669, off Ile-à-Vache, South of St. Domingue.


Bigot, Jean – Buccaneer from Martinique.

Received a royal pardon, 5 August 1685.


Bigotes > Barbillas


Bill, Paunchy – From Australia. 19th century.


Bill, Philip – From St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. (1695-1722)

One of Roberts’men, taken out Onslow at Sestos, May 1721. When on trial one of the victims (Gerrit den Haen, master of the ship Vlissingen) said that he (Bill) was “on Board at the Robbery and Plunder of his ship, behaving in vile outragious Manner, putting them in bodily Fears”. Hanged at the gate of Cape Corso Castle, Africa. 1722.


Bille, Sylvestre – From Dieppe, France.

In command of Romaine operating in the Atlantic waters between Gibraltar and the Azores. Ca. 1522-’30.


Billickens, Jacob – Seabeggar from Oldenburg, West-Germany. Ca. 1570.


Binckes, Jacob - From Koudum, Holland. Fleetcommander in service of the Amsterdam Admiralty.

Fought in seabattles against the English (1666), in the infamous war-raid to Chatham (1667). Distinguished himself in actions against ® Barbary corsairs. Retook in consort with C. Evertsen  St. Eustatius and New-Holland (1673). Worked as an admiral in 1676 until his death (2 December 1677) in Caribbean waters. Captured Tobago. Withstood an attack by a French esquadron lead by d’Estrées. Ordered his captain J.E. ® Reyning to take a British ship, though England and Holland were not warring at that moment. Reyning played so much havoc on the poor vessel that she burst into flames, capsized and sank (15 July 1676).


Bindloss – Buccaneer from England.

When > Dampier’s and > Cowley were in the Galapagos Island the latter amused himselves by naming the islands of the group after living people. Thus sir Anthony Deane, the famous shipwright, kept company with buccaneers like Eure and Bindloss.


Bingham, Christopher – Gentleman adventurer.

One of John > Hawkins’ men. Chosen as a hostage at San Juan de Ulúa , the  port of Veracruz, the main port in all the Gulf of Meixco, 1568.


Birch, John

In command of a ship that sailed from Carolina via the Bermudas and Madagascar to the Eastern Seas in consort of two ships in command of William > Griffin and Daniel > Smith, 1694. Took a prize worth 800 pounds sterling a man, with which he returned to St. Augustine’s Bay, Madagascar. Died there, Griffin and Smith bringing his part of the booty to his wife in Carolina.


Bird, Joe – From Australia. 19th century.


Bird-and-Stone – From China.

One of > Cheng I Sao’s captains.


Birtson, Rob (1692-1722)

One of > Davis and > Roberts’ men. Executed, according to his sentence, “without the Gate of Cape Corso Castle, within the Flood-Marks”.


Birwill – Viking. 8th century.


Bishop – From Ireland.

One of > Cobham’s men. Chief mate.


Bishop, George

Settled in Sierre Leone, West Africa, ca. 1720.


Bishop, Richard – Barbary corsair from Yarmouth, England.

A man “of good temper and moderation”. Master of a privateer from 1591. In 1604 accepted a letter of marque from the Netherlands. In 1605 joined forces with Simon de > Danser and John > Ward, choosing Tunis as his base. In 1608 changed places for Marmora on the Maroccan Atlantic coast. In 1609 admiral of a flotilla of 9 ships, crews totalling a 1.000 men. Requested a general pardon the following year and when this was granted settled near Schull, Ireland. While entertaining his former friends a pirate captain was arrested in his house, 1617.


Bishop, Sarah – From Long Island, New York.

Forced aboard a British privateer/pirate, 1778, to be a communal sex object. Also handled the wheel and stood watches. Promoted to the captain’s woman. This man was killed in an engagement with an American privateer. In 1780 slipped over the side and swam ashore at Stamford, Connecticut. Could not bear to return to normal human society life however and lived the rest of her live as a hermit at Ridgefield.


Bishop, William

One of > Avery’s men. Hanged at Execution Dock, 1696.


Bitchin, Alí > Pisseling, Ali


Björn – Viking from Danmark.

Aka Iárnsíδa (ironside). Often sailed with > Sigtryggr, c. 855. In consort with > Hásteinn led a fleet from their base at the Loire river to the Spanish coasts, 859. Met with bad luck on the Atlantic coasts but fared better after having passed the Straits of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea, 860. Algeciras was sacked, so was Murcia, and the coasts of Marocco, and the Balearic Islands. In all spent two years plundering the coasts of North Africa, Southern France and Italy. Had their wintercamp in the Camargue, France, 859-60. In 860 sacked Luna, believing it to be Rome, sailed up the Arno River and treated Pisa and Fiesole badly. Possibly sailed into the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean. Stole “blámenn”(blue men) on the North African coasts to sell at Ireland. On their way back kidnapped the local lord of Pamplona, Spain, gaining a ransom of 60.000 golden coins, 861. Reached their Loire base with 20 surviving vessels, 862. On his way to Danmark Björn had to beach his ship on the coast of Frisia. Was recognised by some inhabitants and killed.


Black Augustus > August


Black Ceasar > Ceasar


Black Face – From China.

Important man in a pirate band operating from Newchwang, 1933. In command of a fleet of at least 10 junks. “His complexion was unusually dark, and he wore the long gown of an official or scholar.” Whipped a coolie thought to be a Japanese spy. “In his right hand was a length of knotted rope, and stepping up to the victim laid it sharply across his shoulders. The man gave a yell, which was taken up by the crowd, and soon they were all shouting, cursing and screaming as the dark-faced man brought his scourge down on the unfortunate coolie. The red weals gave way to trickles of blood, until his whole back seemed to cut to ribbons. At last he collapsed face down in the mud, at which several of the bystanders tried to revive him by kicking him and pouring water on his head. Each time he stirred, the executioner lashed him where he lay until finally he moved no more.” Was involved in the kidnapping of the four Nanchang-officers, > Li When Chi.


Black Pedro > Pedro


Black Rolf > Rolf


Black Will > Will


Blackadder, Patrick – From Scotland.

Took Portuguese prizes in 1561 thanks to a letter of reprisal granted in 1476.


Blackbeard > Teach, Edward


Blackburn, Lancelot – Flibuster from England.

In the Senior Common Room of Christ Church at Oxford a sword is kept and shown of which is believed it belonged to archbishop Blackburn who as a young chaplain had been sent out to preach the gospel in Antigua in the Caribbean. Acted also as chaplain to the freebooters and shared in their loot. Returned to England in 1691 (or 1681) and the story goes that when a hardened buccaneer back in patria asked what thievery his old comrade was up to, the answer was: “Pretty good; he now is a archbishop.” His rise in the church was rapid indeed. First as dean, then bishop of Exeter, and finally archbishop of York. Appears to have the manners of a pirate since he used to demand tobacco and wine in the vestry “for his refreshment after the fatigues of Confirmation”. Also it is said he kept a seraglio of women for he “gained more hearts than souls”.


Blackenshire, Ralph

Joined > Hornigold’s company when in Eleuthera, the Bahamas, summer 1714.


Blackledge, William. 1694.


Blacton, Michiel – Seabeggar from England. Ca. 1570.


Blades, William – From Rhode Islands, North America. (1695-1723)

One of Charles > Harris’s and > Low’s crew. When tried said “he was forced on board and never signed to their articles, and thathe had when taken about ten or twlve pounds, and that he never shared wth them, but only took what they gave him.” Hanged at Newport, July 19 1723.


Blake – Barbary corsair from England.

Aka Alí Inglese Reys. Renegade.


Blake, Benjamin – From Boston, Massachusetts.

One of > Pounds’s crew. A boy. Taken prisoner at Tarpaulin Cove.


Blake, James

One of > Teach’s men. Hanged in Williamsburg, Virginia, 1718.


Blanc – Buccaneer from France. Captain.

Took part in the sacking of Cartagena, 1697.


Blanchepeyn, Jean – Seabeggar from Valenciennes, France.


Blanck, George – Barbary corsair from England.

Aka George Reys. Master. Active from Algiers, c. 1600. Seven officers serving in his vessel were renegades like himself.


Blanco, Augustino – From Spain.

Shipmaster. Lead a shifting band of  Scots, English, Portuguese, Spaniards, negroes and mulattoes headquartered in the Bahama’s for 20 years. Ten Spanish pirates from his crew stood trial and were executed at Nassau, New Providence, October 11, 1722. In 1725 attacked the sloop Snapper from a piragua off Ragged Island in the Bahama’s. Took the sloop to a nearby island, landed there and robbed a local family.


Blanco, Pedro – From Malaga, Spain.

Slaver, smuggler and pirate. Based in West Africa. Owned a string of  “factories”, eight magazines to store a 2.000 blacks. Also a harem, and a home-built “palace”. Behaved like a real “don”. Settled in Havana, Cuba as a well-respected millionaire, sponsor of the Church. Ca. 1850.


Bland > Blondel, Robert


Bland, Robert

One of > Cornelius’s men. In the position of helmsman on day “called Joseph Williams to take the whipstaff. Williams refused, upon which Bland drubbed him with the lanyard of the whipstaff.” Being a forced man > Williams “instantly entered himself in the ‘Pirate books’ and ask’d  leave to fight which was allowed to him though with no other weapons than his fists. He, however, challenged his opponent. But Bland was too tough for him; so that Williams had turned pirate only to be “heartily thresh’d.”


Blanqueman, Pierre – From Boulogne, France. 18th century.



In 1617 in Lyon, France, a book was published called Discours veritabe du combat naval, & de la desroute des Capitaines Blanquet, Gaillard, & autres pirates & rebelles du Roy.


Blauvelt, Abraham – From Holland.

Aka Van > Bleekveld aka Blewfield. Brave and undertaking sailor. Tradesman, pioneer, sea-officer, searover, discoverer. Has his name stamped on at least two locations in the West Indies. Explored  the coasts of Hondúras and Nicaragua, founded a settlement in Providence Island (1631), as a base for the timbertrade (logwood). This was one of the first genuine > piratesettlements in the West. Returned to Europe in 1637 to offer Bluefieldstown, Nicaragua, as a colony to the English king. Accepted a post as an officer in the Swedish East-India Company when Spain retook Providence Island (1641). Three years later commanded his own ship chasing Spanish ships from Nieuw Amsterdam and Blewfields Bay (this port in SW-Jamaïca still carries his name). Was no longer welcome in the Dutch enclave after 1648, the year of the Peace of Münster between Spain and the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. In 1649 brought a prize into Newport, Rhode Island. Commanded the French La Garse in 1650. Returned in 1663 to his beloved timbercoast among the Sumu Indians and other tribes at Cape Gracias à Dios, Hondúras, on the Spanish Main. Cut wood which he transported with a barque carrying 3 guns and a crew of 50 men. Participated in a raid under Chr. Myngs in the Bay of Campeche, Mexico, the same year.


Blauwkercke – Seabeggar from Dokkum, Friesland.


Blawvels > Blauvelt


Blaze, John

In command of a schooner, given to him and loaded by > Low with logwood in the Bay of Honduras. Low also “put four men along with him in her, and when they came to Sail from this Place, sent them away upon their own account.”


Bleekster, Tanneke – From Holland.

Augustus-September 1571 sued because she "myt vrybuiteren grote ommeganck holt" (“had much intercourse with freebooters”) and seen by reliable people in the Seabeggarfleet.


Bleekveld, van – From Holland.

In 1671 one could find a bay in the vicinity of Cartagena, Venezuela, “called  the Bay of Bleekveld after a rover who frequented this place”, as surgeon > Exquemelin has it. Bleekveld is the man who is called > Blauvelt (Blewfield, Bluefield) elswhere in this encyclopedia. The geografic marking “Blewfield” we also find in Jamaica. The great adventurer > Dampier writes in his "A New Voyage Round The World" (1697): "Blewfield River comes out between the Rivers of Nicaragua and Veragna. At his mouth is a fine Sandy Bay, where Barks may clean: It is deep at its Mouth, but a Shole within; so that Ships may not enter, yet Barks of 60 or 70 Tuns may. It had this Name from Captain Blewfield, a famous Privateer living on Providence Island long before Jamaica was taken.” See also: Blauvelt.

    In 1669 the bay witnissed a fight between two legendary Dutch pirates: Rock > Brasiliano en Jan Erasmus > Reyning. As a rule (> Compaen) troubles on the decks of pirateships were instantly taken care of. A ring is formed around the quarrelers (the duellists donate some money in cash before the fight began, in order to pay for the surgeon’s pains and troubles). Rock and Jan Erasmus fell in together and the latter got wounded in his belly while Rock lost a piece of his chin. Then Jan Erasmus received a gash over his knee, repaying his opponent with the same over his head. Rock hesitated, got a armwound and some boxes on the ear so that his hair was flying around. In spite of all his bigmouthing, Rock was beaten against the main mast until he yelled: “I have enough.”  The Dutch ex-colonial had himself dressed below decks and ordered the surgeon not to help his opponent. Thereupon Reyning let him know he would heave all medical equipment overboard. This helped to calm the other down.

    Later, when their ships lay anchored off the Cayman’s, Rock Brasiliano got himself occupied in sharpening his Spanish rapier. He had to help this Reyning out of this world, said he, for once and for all. “Sure, no problem,” was Reyning’s reply, “I own some excellent pistols here, freshly primed. What do you think, are you ready?” Rock slank off. After this argument the two former friends parted.


Blénac, Louis – Buccaneer from France.

Toot a royal pardon. Promoted to governor of the Antilles attacked the English colony on St. Christoper. 1689.


Bleu de Comarsac, Arsène le

Louisiana settler who as a shipmaster sailed for > Lafitte’s Barataria, South of New Orleans in the Mississippi’s bayou’s. By 1815 had built his cabin at a point where the Calcasieu River intersected the Old Spanish Trail.


Blevyn, Roland

Executed 1577.


Blew, William

One of > Shelvocke’s men. Suffered shipwreck May 25th, 1720 at Mas a Tierra (now called Robinson Crusoe Island), Juan Fernandez. When the men finally left the island on 6 October in a “home made” barque, remained behind


Blewfield > Blauvelt, Abraham > Bleekvelt, van


Blocar, Eduardo – From Spain. 17th century.


Blockmaker, Roepke – Seabeggar from Friesland.


Blois, James – Carpenter.

Picked out of the ship Wade Frigate, February 1718. Said that French pirates had “forced and detained him on board their vessel as carpenter for aboutr six months.” Carpenters were as precious as a kilo of gold.


Blois, Robert van – Seabeggar from Gelderland. 1570.


Blois van Treslong, Willem – Seabeggar from Den Briel, Holland.

Served in the Spanish Fleet but doubted the true intentions of the Spaniards in the Netherlands.  Was bailed out by a friendly noblewoman from a prison at Leeroord after 14 days of confinement. Received a lettre de marque from the prince of > Orange granting him permission to equip two vessels. Bought a 90-ton vessel for the prize of fl. 60,- in Emden and hired 25 freebooters. His lieutenant > Roobol plundered the the town of  Schellingwoude, March 1571. Linked up his 7 ships-fleet with the seabeggars. Surprised 7 Hamburger boeiers in the Vlie-stream, took 5, killing the crews. Should have liked to spend the harsh wintermonths in Delfzijl or Appingedam, but froze up off Wieringen, March 1572. Answered gunfire and a fierce attack of  300 Spanish troops with small cannons tied to sleds. Had his ship cut free from the ice during the fight, helped by the booms of his own guns, then set sail for the British SouthWest coast where his crews, in spite of their outrageous behaviour, were indentured.

     One of the commanders of a fleet of seabeggarships in the Northsea that sought to give battle to the Spanish, in the end of March 1572. When the wind changed the fleet sailed to Den Briel. A ferryman came aboard and told him that the port at the moment was free from the Spanish soldiers. The taking of this town is probably the most known episode in the history of 80 years of war between the Netherlands and Spain, but in fact it was nothing more than an attempt to plunder the town and the lands around this town and to leave the area as fast as possible. However, Blois shared the intensions of other leaders ( > Duivel , De >Rijk and > Entes van Mentheda), bringing the town into a better state of defense for use as a regular base. After this capture the movement of the seabeggars came to an end, their letters of the marque and their commissions were withdrawn, they were no longer needed by the Dutch freedomfighters. Nobody had foreseen that this capture symbolised the beginning of a new nation.


Blommaert, Jacobus – Seabeggar from Oudenaarde, the Spanish Netherlands.

Former manufacturere in cloth. Exiled by “The Iron” duke of Alva from the Netherlands. Rather a bosgeus (woodbeggar) than a seabeggar. Lost his life in action, burnt to death in a farm during a foray, 1572.


Blondel, Robert – From France.

Aka Bland. During the fifth French/Hispanic War (1551-6) in command of a royal ship in a fleet of 7 in a raid on Puerto Rico and Hispaniola in 1553, led by Fr. le > Clerc. Raided Cape Blanco, West Africa, and joined with another French captain sir John > Hawkins’ third West-India expedition (1567-‘8). During the famous fight at San Juan de Ulúa, Mexico (September 23, 1568) did valiant service until his mainmast was carried away. Decided to fire the vessel and transfer his men to other ships. Was killed in the action.


Blot, Pierre (Bloot of Bloed?) – Flibuster from the Netherlands, or from Bretagne, France.

Aka Bot, Blouc or Blout). There is confusion among piratologists whether this Blot is the same man as > Bréha (also in doubt as an alias of Michel > Andrieszoon).

      Sailed in the summer of 1682 with Jan > Willems as a captain in a fleet of 8 ships under > Grammont. Came back in Petit Goâve (now in Haïti) empty-handed. Spring 1683 commander of Diligente, captured a Spanish treading vessel in the Windward Passage, landed the survivors at Guantanamo, Cuba, and sailed fore his base Tortuga. Often sailed in consort of Laurens de > Graaf and partook with his Guagnone of 8 guns and 90 men in the siege and capture of Vera Cruz, 1683, and Campêche, 1685. In September 1683 the governor of Sainte Domingue warned his colleague at Jamaïca for a esquadron of four pirates under the flag of De Graaf and also "Le Capitaine Hiangué [Jan > Key] à 15 pièces de canon et 150 hommes, le Capitaine Blot à 19 pièces de canon et 150 hommes, et un autre nommé Archanbault qui est le long de la côte de St. D. à 10 p.d.c. et 80 h." It is the flibusters’ intention to plunder the stores of Honduras and maybe they are heading for Campèche, the governor predicted, but also is is very possible they were assembling a big fleet at Tortuga Island in order to attack the Spanish treasurefleet. Actually the goal was Santiago de Cuba but nought came of it.

    Sailed in a fleet of five small plus two very small ships under “admiral” > Bannister, spring 1684.

    11 september 1685 De Graaf’s 5 ships-fleet was hunted down by a Spanish warfleet by. Blot’s NuestraSeñoradeRegla (20 guns, 10 swivel guns and 130 men) was a slow sailing ship and got behind. Had to throw parts of the loot and some guns overboard to lighten her and escape a harsh punishment by the Spanish guns. In vain, “pero Blot y una balandra no pueden evitar ser apresado”. Surrendered after a heavy fight with 5 Spanish warships. Immediately the Spaniards took the to his decks and behaved like they were pirates themselves. The situation worsened when the crew of a 6th Spanish ship joined the party. They found 200 fire weapons in her, probably more but these were thrown into the sea. Four days later, with Blot and his crew as prisoners on board, the Spanish ships collection met De Graaf's Neptune. The latter escaped in a rain of gunfire of a 1.600 rounds by heaving all his guns and the loot overboard. Blot was executed in Vera Cruz with his officers and 6 Spaniards under his crew. That is what Spanish papers said about this affair. For one year later Blot still was in his Guagnone and part of a formidable fleet under, again under De Graaf. Among his crew there were negroes, indians, mulattos, Swedes, Irish, Americans to be found, but particularly Dutch, English and French. Like a swarm of mosquitos the fleet visited Cartagena, the Gulf of Paria and the coast of Caraque.

     Stillactivein1697whenamemberof  fleetofflibustersships under > Ducasse and naval vessels  undercommandofadmiralGodefroy, againagainstCartagena.Ducasse described his men as “la lie du royaume, dépourvus d’honneur comme de vertu’’. (“the dregs of the nation, bereft of honour or virtue”)


Blouc – Flibuster. Probably > Blot


Bluebeard – From the Thameside, London, England.

One of the crew of a pirate vessel that took Judith of Rochester, England. Was described (20 April 1619) by a victim in order to identify as: “a little short man with flaxen hair on his head and a yellow beard and has a cut over his right cheek and has a long tall woman in a red waistcoat to his wfie (...) and was called by the rest of his consorts by the name of Blue Beard.”


Bluefield > Blauvelt


Blueskin > West, Levi


Bluetooth > Hudda


Blum, Rüdiger > Flor, Roger de


Blundel > Blondel


Bnabo – From Fance.

Attacked Santa Cruz de La Palma in the Canary Islands, 1537. With the help of the merchant > Caçote navigated to Lanzarote and took a Spanish East Indiaman. Also conquered another vessel off La Graciosa. Sailed back to La Palma to atack the place a second time. Was defeated and taken prisoner “muy quemado y herido” (seriously burnt and wounded). Probably executed on the spot.


Bobadilla, Beatriz de – From Spain.

Described as “the most beautiful and most cruel woman of Castilia”. Married H. Peraza and sailed with him to the Canary Islands with an eye on plunder and/or colonisation, 1491. After Peraza was murdered, seized control, surpressing a native uprising in brutal fashion. Enslaved the islanders and acted as mistress of Gomera. In this position bid adieu to Columbus on his epic voyage, 1492.


Bobbington, Richard

One of the seamen in > piratesettlement Ste. Marie (now Nosí Boraha), Madagascar. Was given command there of Charming Mary. Said he was an Irishman though his father was Dutch and his mother English. In May 1696 reached Rajapore at the coast of West India and took a muslem vessel, a stubborn resistance notwithstanding.

     In December 1696 landed a boat’s crew of pirates of all nations at Tellicherry on the Malabar Coast and extorted stores and provisions from the natives there. Tried this again near Cape Jask in the Gulf of Oman. The Persians fought with them and after killing three pirates took the rest prisoners. Leaving their comrades without any attempt to rescue them, Charming Mary decided to try new cruising grounds and sailed to the Straits of Malacca, choosing John > Yarland as master.

     In prison said that his ship came from English Dominions. For this rason the Persians replied the English are the only sea robbers. The English demanded him be given up by the Persian government “to be sent to Bombay to answer for his late roguery in burning two ships belonging to the Great Mogul in the Gulf of Mocha.” Neither Bobbington nor any of the others were ever again heard of.



On Florida’s Gulf Coast opposite Charlotte Harbor there lies Bookelia. It is the Northern side of Pine Island and once used to be the settlement of the Bocilla Brothers. They owned a ship and sailed in concert with José > Gaspar. They also used Cara Pelau as a headquarter, but fights began to erupt between them and Gaspar’s crew. At the Bocilla village the sailors lived and wencherd in thatched roof shacks of palm logs. The captains lived in a house built of ship’s timbers. A wharf went out into the harbor. Sometimes gold coins were dug out of nearby Indian mounds.


Bockesz, Claes - Seabeggar from Leeuwarden, Friesland. 1566.


Bockstall, Lavycken von

One of > Kniphof’s men.


Bocquet, Vincent – From Dieppe, France.

In command of two ships (Barbe, Marguerite) took 6 vessels out of a Spanish Flota of 14 returning from the West Indies. 1553. His chase between Hispaniola and Cadíz lasted 40 days. There was much loot: gold, pearls and cochenille.


Bodulgate, Thomas – From Cornwall, England.

In command of a vessel that brought in an Irish prize into Fowey, 1454, but also served on commissions investigating piracy by others. Owned large estates in Cornwall and had political influence there. Bought merchandise taken by pirates together with John > Trevelyan and Richard > Penpons. Died 1471.


Boekel, Matthijs ten > Bootel, Matthijs van


Boggs, Eli – From North-America.

Described as “Black-haired and clean-shaven, with large, lustrous eyes and a charming smile. His hands were white and delicate; he would have made a beautiful girl”. However, although debonair and gentlemanly in manner was in the mid-19th century the most bloodthirsty and dreaded pirate on the Chinese coasts. Enlisted with Chinese pirates by 1852, why or how he joined them and became their leader does not seem te be known. Plundered opium clippers. Kidnapped wealthy Chinese merchants and mandarins for ransom. Legendary fame for his cruelty. Once single-handedly boarded a junk, killing 15 men and driving the others overboard. Or, to speed up negotiations, cut up the body of a merchant captive into four pieces and sent these ashore in a bucket, as a warning that if 100.000 dollars were not sent to the pirates, the mandarins whom they held would be treated in the same way. Hid on that moment about a 100 stolen trading junks off Yingkow.

     In 1855 was spotted by two American clippercaptains who, thanks to the speed of their vessels and better seamanship, had escaped a fleet of craft, then known as the “Sheipo Pirates”. Both had powerful telescopes and they were almost sure they had seen the young dandy pirate at the wheel of the lorcha at the head of one of the columns of pirate-junks. In came the help of another gentleman/pirate: William “Bully” > Hayes, who offered to guide a warship (under Nicholas Van Sittart) to the Gulf of Liaotung in Northern China, the rover’s hang-out. In September 1856 Van Sittart’s Bitterne, led by Hayes, sailed into a fleet of 42 pirate-junks. The two lorcha’s at the head of the columns were fast-sailing schooners, probably built in Canton. Their fine lines were copied from the American and British clippers and set sails of stout canvas. Boggs could be seen on the afterdeck of one of them. It was tricky navigation for the warship, in shoal water dotted with reefs. The accuracy of the navigators and Bitterne’s gunnery resulted in 8 of the piratevessels being damaged to sinking condition. One of this craft was a lorcha.

    Next morning no one piratevessel was in sight and Bitterne sailed on to Yingkow where the heretold atrocity had taken place. The 100 trading junks were released. Acting on information given the creeks to the Southward were searched and 11 pilongs (warjunks, fast and seaworthy) captured. The following day a lorcha was sighted, close to the shore. Two armed cutters were sent out, Hayes grabbed a cutlass and joined them. It was a long pull and when the cutters came within range of the lorcha’s guns she opened fire. The firing was accurate, the gunners could haven been American or European. Both boats would haven been sunk but the firing stopped. It could be seen that the Chinese piratecrew was fighting among herself and then, before the two cutters came alongsiode the lorcha, she blew up seconds after Boggs had dived overboard, swimming for the shore. Hayes dived after him and soon overhauled him. Boggs turned to attack with a short blade but Hayes took hold of his wrist and hit him on the jaw. By then a cutter had reached the duellists.

      Taken to Shanghai, transported to Hong Kong. Hayes took 2 iron-bound chests of silver specie from the pirates, an illegal deed, and collected the 1.000 dollars reward, the prize that was placed on Boggs’ head. The pirate-chief was tried for murder and piracy on 1 July, 1857. Spoke for two hours in his own defense. Acquitted of murder, found guilty of piracy. Sentenced to transportation for life. Never been heard of ever since.



Sailed in consort with > Levasseur from Madagascar.


Boisbaudrant, Gabriel Chambres de – Knight of Malta from France.

Commander of galleys from 1634 to ’38 and “captain-general of the galleys” from 1642. September 1644 off Rhodes blundered into a Turksh convoy that incluced the sultan’s galleon, a heavily armed 1.100 ton-ship with the sultan’s favourite wife Basseba on board. She was only 19 years of age, Circassian, and of legendary beauty. So the story says, and she had her very young son with her on a pilgrimage to Mecca, Arabia.

     Had 3 galleys attack immediately, under a rain of missiles from the galleon. Managed to board her and taking her after 7 hours of grim fighting. Got badly wounded in the fight, hit by a muquet ball. Stayed on the galleon’s afterdeck, encouraging his troops. The enormous prize was badly wounded too. Before she foundered on her way to Malta the Maltese seamen rescued much of her priceless cargo, including the sultana’s jewels, and took crew and passengers as hostages worth huge ransoms. The harem-star died after reaching Malta, her son was brought up there as a christian.

      The bold venture had some consequencies. Especially for trading port Venice that had enjoyed peace with Istanbul since 1573 (the Venetians themselves being victims of Maltese piracy). Because the knights had used Venetian ports on their way back to Malta, the sultan decided to lay the Island of Crete under siege in 1645 and soon overran the island.


Bokatja – Radja laut from the Moluccas.

Radja Laut in the Malay language means: king of the sea. His position as a leader was called: kimalaha. Active from a base at Galela on the coast of the island of Halmaheira, c. 1900. Preyed on people to sell  as slaves to the sultans of Ternate and Celebes.


Bold, John

Active from Isla Términos, Yucatán. With John > Elliot took two vessels from Campeche off Vera Cruz, Nueva España, a bergantín and a balandra, c. 1700. Was chased from his base, together with Elliot, > Haven, > Hamilton and Vanderbull by a Spanish force from Campeche with 289 men infantry, artillery and cavalry, 386 marines, 50 lancers and 20 “forasteros” (foreigners).


Bolitho, Thomas

One of > Avery’s men. Broke from the company and sailed with 16 more men in a sloop to Ireland and reached Dublin where he disappeared from view.


Bolivar – From Portugal.

Aka Bolibar (the “v” is pronounced as a “b” in the Spanish langage) or Bolidar. > Jonnia’s lieutenant (first mate) in the schooner Mexican that took the Boston schooner Exertion off Twelve League Key, South of the Cuban mainland, 17 December, 1821. One of the victims found him “a stout, well-built man of swarthy complexion and keen, ferocious eyes, huge black whiskers and beard, and a tremendously loud voice”. As a matter of fact this victim had nothing flattering to say about the 30 or more pirates: “In their appearance they were terrific, wearing black whiskers and long beards, the receptacles of dirt and vermin. They used continually the most profane languag, had frequent quarrels, and so great was their love of gambling that the captain would play cards with the meanest man on board.” There also were three black girls amongst them, “of whom it is well to say no more”.

     Both ships were sailed to the Eastward and then run into a narrow creek between two keys. Bolivar was sent with an armed boat to the shore and travelled inshore to Principe (now Camagüey) to a merchant, December 22th. Exertion was totally stripped: her cargo, the ship’s materials, personal belongings, nothing escaped the interest of the pirates. Some of the crew joined the pirates, in the hope to be better off, the others were landed on some key in the neighbourhood, prey to “flies, mosquitoes, snakes, the venomous santipee [centipede?], sometines they were found crawling inside of our pantaloons”. Other victims were brought in; the “back of one of these poor fellows was extremely sore, having just suffered a cruel beating from Bolibar with the broad side of a cutlass”. 6 January 1822: “The pirates were underway at sunrise with a full load of Exertion’s cargo going to Principe again to sell a second freight. I afterwards heard that the flour brought only five dollars per barrel, when it was worth at Trinidad thirteen, so that the villain who bought my cargo at Principe made very large profits by it.” The best sharks live on the land.

      These eleven victims of piracy were marooned January 19th, 1822. “We were rowed about 2 miles NorthEasterly to a small, low island, lonely and desolate (...) I asked Bolibar if he as going to leave us so. He answered; ‘No, only two days. We go for water and wood, then come back, take you.’ I requested him to give us bread and other stores, for they had plenty in the boat. ‘No, no, suppose tomorrow morning me come, me give you bread,’ and hurried off to their vessel. This was the last time I saw him.” Later it turned out to be that Bolivar actually had objected to the plan to maroon fellow sailors. February 6, 1822 a boat arrived with some men who had escaped the pirates.

     When Mexican was chased by a English government vessel from Jamaica (1822), Bolivar perished among the mangroves on an island similar to that on which he had left the prisoners.


Bolívar, Simon (1783-1830)

Leader of the revolts in South and Central America, mostly active from Bogotá and New Granada, which territories he hoped to join with Venezuela as the United Provinces of New Granada, c. 1815. Sometimes had to act as a common pirate, against his will. On October 10, 182 abolished piratical activities entirely: “The Republic of Colombia has no more need for more corsairs to degrade its flag on all the seas of the world.” In 1822 liberated Ecuador, in 1825 Bolivia from the Spaniards.


Bollato – Barbary corsair from Italy.

A nickname. Captain of a brigantine [small galley] in a squadron led by >Turgut, operating from Djerba off the  coast of Tunesia. One of his more modest successes was the taking of a vessel between Rome and Naples. She had 20 pilgrims on board.


Bollen, George

Signed on with > Kidd at New York, September 1696. Chief mate. Took command of prize ship Queddah Merchant, then Adventure Prize, and sailed her to St. Marie, Madagascar.


Bolton, Robert – Gentleman adventurer from England.

Captain of the galleon Pascoe. Sailed with John > Hawkins.


Bolton, Thomas – Gentleman adventurer from England.

In 1567 master of the 150-ton William and John , aptly named after her owners John and William > Hawkins. Probably the same man as Robert > Bolton.


Bom, Aert Jacobsz – Seabeggar from Leiden, Holland.


Bommel, van > Jan


Bona – From Sumatra.

Datoe (local chief) and commander of one of the 64 prahu’s of the Lanong people in Lampong (the SE-tip of Sumatra), c. 1802. These prahu’s were equipped with 143 cannons and 157 rantakka’s (mousketons). In two months time that year the rovers had taken ten large vessels, suffering 111 dead and 62 wounded; under the victims 133 dead and 31 wounded.


Bond – From Bristol, England. Captain.

In 1682 bought a Dutch ship at San Tomas, fitted her out for tyo go a-roving. Sailed in consort with Jean > Hamlin, sending his prizes to San Tomas. On the pretext of being in need of provision seized and carried away some of the principal inhabitants of Maio Island in the Cape Verdes. “Whether ever he brought back those Men again I know not,” wrote W. > Dampier. When  in 1683 John > Cooke and > Cowley arrived at Maio they were prevented from landing by the inhabitants owing to Bond’s treatment. Caught some Portuguese vessels there. On the African coast of Guinée associated with > Eaton, crossed the ocean direction Cape Horn, but near Brasil his pilot Morton joined Eaton. Changed his plans and returned to the Antilles.

    Joined the Spanish and helped them prepare a fireship against his old brothers in crime, 1685. Historian B. Little tells us about this feat: “At Perico near Panama, a Spanish merchant and his crew approached a buccaneer ship at night under an arrangement to engage in a private trading venture, but suddenly set the bark afire and boarded their canoes, leaving the buccaneers to cut the cables and make their escape from the flaming craft driftng down upon them. Fortunately the buccaneers had enough sea room to make their escape.” > Dampier noted that “after the first blast she did not burn clear, only made a smother, for she was not well made.” The buccaneers caught some of the assailants and hanged one of them (a mulatto), a common practice among navies with men who had “lit the train” (set a ship afire). Died in this action.


Bondavais, Jean – From France.

Master of the sloop Mary Ann operating from the Bahamas, 1717, “harshly treating” the Harbour Islanders. Tried to take the captive surgeon John > Howell from > Hornigold. Accepted the king’s pardon and became a privateer against Spain. Caught up with > Rackam and was fired upon. Retreated and reported the incident to J. > Barnet, another privateer who had been hunting for Rackam.



Anegada Island in the Virgin Islands once was Sound Island and/or Drowned Island. As mst of these islands Anegada’s first inhabitants were buccaneers. Bone Creek on the North side is named after captain Bone.


Bonel – Barbary corsair from England.

Beheaded in Marseille, France, June 1609.


Bonfils, Nicolas – From France.

Aka Nicolo Bonfiglio. Admiral of a fleet of large sailing ships, one of the4se a 55 gun-ship. Looted Venetian shipping along Barbary coasts in the years 1495 and 1496.


Bonga, Jan – Seabeggar from West Dongeradeel, Friesland.

One of the first > seabeggars. Banished from the Spanish Netherlands by the duke of Alva. Served in the battle of Heiligerlee and Jemmingen and roamed with Jan > Abels and Homme van > Hettinga in the Northern waters robbing trading vessels from the provinces of Groningen and Friesland. In 1569 one of the most infamous captains there. In 1572 present at the important taking of Den Briel (the first base in the Dutch struggle for independence), took Sneek and Bolsward, Friesland, and chased the Spaniards out of  Dokkum. Died in 1580.


Bonidel – Flibuster.

Received a “congé” (commission) of the military governor of Jamaica to chase Spanish shipping operating from Cagway (future Port Royal), Jamaica, c. 1660.


Boniface – Vitalienbruder. Ca. 1400.


Bonito, Benito

Aka Edward or Graham Bennet aka Benito of the Bloody Sword. There still are many fortune-hunters who dig and delve, hoping to find treasure, trusting to vague information and using old, suspicious looking maps. In particular on the minute island of Cocos, 32 miles in circumference and 378 seamiles from Costa Rica in the Pacific ocean. The first pirate to have chosen Cocos as a cache is the Dutchman Edward > Davis, 1685. A short time later came Benito Bonito.

      Preferred to be called Don Pedro, but probably from British descent. A womanizer, hence Bonito, and a bloodthirsty man. In 1816 led a succesful mutiny onboard a Portuguese brigantine. Took command of the ship, changed her for fast British slaveship Lightning after a fight wherein all but two English opponents were slaughtered. Rechristened her Relampagos. Served the revolutionary “navies” from the West coast of  South America to harrass the Spaniards. Undertook a landfall to plunder an overland expedition with treasure and money from the Philippines. Said to have buried the largest part of the booty on Cocos Island, 1819. Never could dispose of the riches since he was soon hunted down by corvette Espiegle off the Mexican coast near Buena Ventura. Rather than submitting shot himself through the head. All his men were immediately hanged, except the two Lightning-mates who proved they were forced and his maîtresse co-pirate Mary > Welch.


Boniton, Peter – From Cornwall, England.

Based in Ireland and plying the waters around the Strait of Gibraltar. Captured there off Faro, Portugal, by a French galleon sent to hunt pirates. Executed at Marseilles, France, 1609.


Bonnavee, John

In command of a privateer belonging to Jamaica. Killed > Turn Joe. Ca. 1710.



One of > Cobb’s men who arrived with the ship Roebuck at Falmouth, May 10th, 1637. Warrants were issued for his arrest but he later got a royal pardon.


Bonnerman, John

One of men who sttled on “the high Land of  Sierraleon”, ca. 1720.


Bonnet, Stede – From Christ Church, Barbados. (1688-1718)

Aka Edwards aka Captain Thomas. Exceptional pirate. Took to piracy because of the fun or, as historian Capt. Ch. Johnson has it: “to escape a nagging wife”. Was not brought up to seafaring life, but had retired from the island’s militia, with the rank of major. He owned “substantial landed property in Barbadoes,” says historian Gosse, in fact one of the most prosperous estates on the island. “[He] lived in a fine house, was married, and much respected by the quality and the gentry of that island.” The Barbados marriage records show he married a mrs. Mary Allamby on 21 November 1709. There seem to haven been some 3 or 4 children of this marriage. In the year 1715 a levy was held in the island and this Stede Bonnet, then 27 years of age, was described as living “somewhere over the Bridge”, which would be just South of the harbor in Bridgetown. Since his birth was registered in Christ Church we can assume that he either still lived in the same area or perhaps somewhere in Bay Street. There is still an area known as Bonnet’s. Afte his first child died in early childhood Stede Bonnet fell into depression, it seems. It was said he suffered from “a disorder in his Mind, which had been but too visible in him [for] some time (...) by some discomforts he found in a married state.” Be it as it may, though being a landsman through and through he purchased a 10-gun sloop. His decision to become a privateer could not have been a secret, for the excessive armament and crew he hired could be seen: tough hands, about 70 in all. Said he hoped to be granted a commission to hunt down pirates. In fact wished to become one himself. Raised a pirate’s flag which was described as being a scull over a thigh bone, a heart dexter and a dagger sinister. Baptized his sloop Revenge (no one knows why, probably because this was a favourite ship’s name among pirates) and sailed out in the spring of 1717. Arriving at the entrance to Chesapeake Bay sighted and plundered in quick succession no less than four vessels. “For a rank amateur,” Gosse continued, “Bonnet met with wonderfull success” and mentioned a list of prizes:

     Anne, of Glasgow, Scotland; capt. Montgomery

     Turbet, of Barbados

     Endeavour, capt. Scott, of Scotland

     Young, of Leith, Scotland

Burnt the Barbados-ship, as he did with all prizes from Barbados, and sold the plunder out of these vessels at Gardiner Island, near New York, which he left in orderly manner. His successes were remarkable because he had no real knowledge of navigation and on more than one occasion had caused friction with his crew.

      In spite of this lucky adventuring experienced trouble with his crew. Careened his ship in a remote North Carolina inlet. On his way to New Providence tangled with a heavily-armed Spanish warship, the ensueing clash cost him half of his men and a damaged Revenge. At Nassau, New Providence, met with > Teach aka Blackbeard and his mentor > Hornigold. Headed into the Caribbean Sea with Teach in command. It is probable that Teach had invited Bonnet to sail with him, but then stole his command finding him a poor leader and incompetent sailor. Looted and plundered vessels between Guadeloupe on the French Antilles and the Virgin Islands. In November 1717 the two landed on the coast of  Guadeloupe, raided a small village, and captured a ship lying off the village. During these operations supposed to have adopted the name Edwards. Since the West Indian islands lie as closely together as they do, it was not long before news of these acts of piracy circulated in the America’s. Early 1718 Bonnet and Teach seperated but met soon again in the Turneffe Islands, off the coast of modern Belize, after Bonnet’s Revenge had been mauled by a merchantman of Boston. Possibly relieved to be free from the headaches of command, followed Teach to his spacious quarters in his Queen Anne’s Revenge, had his clothing, books and personal property brought on board. Teach’s lieutenant > Richards took over the command of Bonnet’s Revenge, 2 April 1718.

      In May 1718 the two appeared off Charlestown in a ship of 40 guns and 140 hands, and 3 more pirateships. Under Teach’s command blockaded the port for a whole week, seizing and looting several vessels as they left port, having gained 1.500 pounds sterling and some hostages.  When he tried to cheat the others of their share of the plunder Teach lost his ship in Topsail Inlet. Teach took 40 of his most trusted men, put them aboard one of the remaining sloops and left. Bonnet took advantage of a royal amnesty for pirates, surrendered to the authorities, received a pardon and was permitted to stay in command of his own vessel.

      After some adventures and more quarrels with Teach that are not sufficient important to mention here, disguised his vessel under the alias Royal James and called himself  “Captain Thomas”. The truth was he had requested a permission from the North Carolina government to proceed to the Danish island of  St. Thomas where he was hoping to get a Austrian emperor’s permission to operate as a privateer against the Spaniards. Just before sailing received news that Teach had marooned 17 of his former men on a barren island without any means of escape or way of securing food to survive. Sailed for the island and rescued them, June 1718. Took three vessels off Cape Henry, and then another six vessels. Seized a quantity of cargo (rum and molasses). Put a skeleton crew of 8 aboard one of the three with instructions to follow him, but these men absconded with the vessel.

      At this time seemed to be riding the crest of a wave of good luck, one ship after another being captured in full scale operations between Virginia and Philadelphia. Operated for a short while in Delaware Bay. There Royal J ames turned out to be very leaky. On August the 12th, 1718, took her to the Cape Fear River in North Caroline to carry out the necessary scraping and repairs, the same spot he had used a year earlier at the mouth of a stream now known as Bonnet’s Creek. Seized a local vessel and tore her apart for necessary timbers.

      Alarming news of the latest threats to North America shipping by two pirates vessels under the command of > Vane and > Yeats had led the authorities of South Carolina to commission two sloops to go after them. A colonel W. Rhett had fitted out the sloops at his own expense. Rhett failed to find Vane or Yeats but on 25 September 1718 his 8-gun Henry, 70 men, and 8-gun Sea Nymph, 60 men, arrived at Cape Fear River, and came across RoyalJames and her prizes. Rhett waisted no much time and attacked. The pilot who was guiding Rhett’s vessels up the river accidently ran them on to a mudbank. Bonnet, seeing what he took to be merchant ships sent out 3 boatloads of armed men to board the vessels. They soon discovered their error and rowed back. Dark was falling and Bonnet prepared his vessel for battle. In the meantime wrote a letter to the governor of South Carolina stating that if Rhett’s vessels interfered with his vessel he would burn and destroy all the ships he encountered leaving or entering South Carolina ports. Bold language, often used by pirates to save their necks. But next morning the tide had refloated Rhett’s vessels. In an effort to surprise Rhett Bonnet ran close and now got hís ship shoaled. Being within gunshot the Bonnet-men had to stand and fight. After a mammoth five-hour battle struck his colours. Had lost 7 men killed and 5 men wounded. Rhett had lost about 18 men killed. The pirate prisoners were landed at Charleston on September the 28th and placed under guard as there was no real prison to confine them.

     Must somehow have bribed a guard. Escaped with a member of his crew by the name of Hariot or > Herriot. The governor offered a reward of 700 pounds for his recapture. Was forced to turn back to Sullivan’s Island near Charleston hoping to obtain some food and equipment for a stolen canoe. Again colonel Rhett set out for him and again won the fight, killing Hariot and 2 more of Bonnet’s men.

     The trial began on Tuesday, September 28th, 1718 and continued till November 12. He and his men were accused of feloniously and piratically capturing the sloop Frances with her goods and the sloop Fortune and her goods, and 11 other ships. Was found guilty. The chief Justice, Trott by name, made a speech of overwhelming length, full of biblical quotations, to each of which the learned magistrate gave chapter and verse, leaving his victims no opportunity to use their defense time better. Under sentence of death Bonnet’s courage failed him. Wrote a letter to the governor of South Carolina begging for his life: “[Make] me a menial servant to your honour and this government, and (...) you’ll receive the willingness of my friends to be bound for my good behavior and constant attendance to your commands.”

     Records of the day state that the hanging on December 10th 1718 took place near the corner of Water and Meeting Streets, also called White Point, Charleston, “another landmark in the war against piracy”. Accompanied by the drumbeat sounding his death knell, the cart bore a stooped young man, holding a wilted bouquet in manacled hands and loosing a last shred of dignity when he nearly fainted as he approached the scaffold. The militia pirate was held upright by the deputies as the noose was tightened around his neck. His body and those of 29 of his crew (only 3 were acquitted) were all buried within the flowing of the sea “which had witnessed so many of their dark deeds”.

      “Apart from the unusual cause for his turning pirate,” says Gosse, “Bonnet is interesting as being almost the only case known, otherwise than in books of romance, of a pirate making his prisoners walk the plank.”


Bonnival, Alexander

One of the captains sailing from Barataria, often linked with the activities of the > Lafitte’s. 1814.


Bonny, Anne – From Cork, Ireland. b.1700.

Born as Ann Fulford, illegitimate child, and “just about the prettiest colleen who ever grew up to slit a man’s gullet”. Raised in disguise, her parents pretending she was the child of a relative. Was taken by her father, an attorney-at-law, to Carleston, South Carolina, to seek fortune there. Said to have a “fierce and courageous temper”, but if she performed the acts that Capt. Charles Johnson aka D. Defoe claimed she did, is still a good question. Probably Defoe was trying to enhance the salabilities of his A General History of the Pyrates (1724), but that Fulford performed the job as an able seaman, “which as a matter of course bred physical strength, toughness, independence, fearlessness, and a capability of surviving by one’s wits”, is a sure thing. Always mentioned together with colleague woman-pirate Mary > Read. Convicted on November 28 1720 to the gallows but “pleaded their Bellies, being Quick with Child, and pray’d that Execution might be staid”. Another fine line was attributed to her when seeing her principal lover, Rackam, some days before his hanging: “if you had fought like a Man, you need not have hang’d like a Dog.”

     Still in her teens got stuck in the pirate-scene after falling in love with young privateersman > James Bonny in Charlestown, marrying him secretly. Ran off with him when he turned to piracy and ended up to become one of New Providence’s most infamous harlots. Met Captain John > Rackam, in 1720, a succesfull, good-looking dare-devil pirate, who had been lavishly spending his money. When he caught sight if her he spent even more, all his loot to be exact. He supposed that he had to collect some more dough if not to loose her, so signed with > Burgess. Struck it rich again to spent it all on Anne. The couple lived it up so lively that complaints were made. Was brought before governor > Rogers who ordered her to be stripped and whipped with Rackam doing the whipping part. Faced with this ordeal agreed to give up her bad ways and return to her husband. Unable to continue their relationship ashore Rackam and Anne took to the sea. Contrary to common usance on pirateships, but maybe she was tolerated because she made herself available to all hands in Rackam’s small crew. “The island where they did visit to do away with damage of shot and storm was called Estero (...) While the ship’s carpenter and crew did labour mightily to refit the vessel, Calico Jack and the woman, Anne Bonny, did make merry for many days on the island where they had a dwelling made of sticks and palms.” It would seem so that the two were the first white couple to ever sort of honeymoon on the island now better known as Fort Myers Beach.

      When pregnant Rackam, following a practice common among captains, landed her in Cuba. Gave birth to a child (son or daughter is no part of the story; that is: if this story is true) and returned to her lover’s ship “as active an any with cutlass and marlinspike.” Then Read came on board, disguised as a man.  Bonny attempted to seduce her but Read “knowing what she would be at, and being very sensible of incapacity that way, was forced to come to a right understanding with her.” Unmasked herself, which created an intimacy between the two women and roused Rackam to a fury. Told him the truth about the young sailor’s identity. “Sailors are not fond of seeing their officers indulged in luxuries they cannot themselves enjoy and it would be politic in officers never to create hostile feelings by showing off to the crew that which must excite in them envious feelings.” Bonny and Read were shared by all hands.

      Rackam’s ship was finally taken by a sloop sent out by the governement at Jamaica for the purpose of capturing pirates. According to a witness at the trial: “Two women wore Mens jackets, and long Trouzers, and Handkerchiefs tied about their Heads; and that each of them had a Machet and Pistol in their Hands, and cursed and swore at the Men.” After which another witnesses (> Besneck and > Cornelian) added: “[They were] willing to do any Thing; That Ann Bonny handed Gun-powder to the men, That when they saw any Vessel, gave Chase, or Attacked, they wore Men’s Cloaths; and, at other Times, they wore Women’s Cloaths; That they did not seem to be kept, or detain’d by Force, but of their own Free-Will Consent.” Donning men’s clothes would have made her relatively anonymous, affirmed her role as an active crew member, even afforded her a degree of protection from sexual assault hasd she been captured.

       After “pleading her belly” remained in prison until her lying-in, was reprieved and then disappeared into obscurity. However, parish record of St. Catharine (April 25, 1721) say Bonny gave birth to a son, and legend has it that her freedom was bought by her now-wealthy father. What is more: a Charlestown lawyer married her and she bore him a certain number of children.

       This is what modern science says about her: “Anne Bonny’s life at sea, in particular, seems to have followed the career of the archetypal female warrior as a ‘high-mettled heroine who disguises herself as a soldier or sailor and goes to war for her beloved.’ Disguise was a form of protection and a means through which women were able to break out of the constraints of customary life; it also gave some women the opportunity to flout conventional morality.” This sounds all very fine but I do think it was just a matter of circumstances. However, the presence of the two women on board in this case upset pirate-ship routine and so effected morale that not only was piratediscipline destroyed but the will to defend their ship and their lives was lost. Later pirates stipulated regulations like the following: “Any man found seducing a woman, or carrying her to sea disguised as a man for that purpose, is to be put to death.”

      There is a poem attributed to Anne Bonny, suggesting her bold spirit:


Drain, drain the bowl, each fearless soul -

Let the world wag as it will.

Let the heavens growl, the devil howl,

Drain, drain the bowl, and fill.


Bonny, James

A “rank-and-file” pirate, one of Woodes > Rogers’s informans. “A likely young fellow, and of a sober life.” Arrived in Nassau, New Providence from South Carolina with his wife Anne > Bonny, 16-years of age but fast in making a name for herself for libertine behavior. As a matter of fact cuckolded mr. Bonny on many occasions. Joined > Rackam’s men. When she took a liking to >Rackam James Bonny agreed to seek an annulment of the marriage in exchange for a cash payment. Rogers forced the couple to stay together. After Anne ran off with Rackam took a pardon and served as an inferior officer chasing former pirates from Nassau, New Providence.


Bontekoe – From Holland.

One "bonte-Koe (...) kreeg lucht dat een scheepje met zilver naar Duinkerken moest, roofde 8 kisten met Realen van 8, verdeelde dat onder dwang onder het [scheeps-] volk," said historian C. Wassenaer in 1622. (“spotted-Cow got wind of a ship with silver for cargo for Dunkerque, robbed her of 8 chests with pieces of  8, dividing the loot when forced so by his crew.”)


Bontekoe, Willem Ysbrantszn - From Hoorn, Holland. (1587-1657)

The term “spotted” in relation to persons and animals was typically applied to a exuberantly dressed woman or man, and lives on in shipnames like (ex-searover) > Columbus’s Pinta and Die Bunte Kuh of the Eastfrisian > Stortebeker.

     Fell into the hands of > Barbary corsairs during his younger years as a seaman and was ransomed by the Algerian admiral > Veenboer, for a handsome prize of 750 pieces of 8 (1617). Though a honest and valiant merchantman he committed illegal strikings on the Chinese island of Gulangyu (Chusam Archipelago) when captain of the Dutch Indiamen Groningen en Bergerboot. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended to come to a monopoly in the trade on China, forcing the Portuguese to give up Macao. The Chinese had to open some of their ports to trade with the Dutch, per force if necessary.

     "29. dito [nov. 1622] we weighed anchor and bombarded the town. Set a junk on fire. Saw some big villages on the other side of the island, with two big junks on the stocks. Resolved to plunder [this location] which we did 30. dito, with about 70 musqueteers. The inhabitants all fled to a fortress, we took after them. They sallied twice crying and yelling if the world came to an end, we struck them with our sabres and after we had them shot at with olur musquettes they ran. Hunting them down into the fortress striking them to death in the process. We lost one man, the barber. We burnt two junks and the village and returned to the ships with a good booty of pigs, bucks, hens and more plunderagy. We prepared the beasts the same night.”

     Captured many Chinese during this raid. “Brought them all to the Piscadoris [a group of islands between Taiwan and the Asian continent] where they were tied to each other two by two, 1.400 in all whom we took to Batavia and sold them.”

     Published his memoirs (but not the adventures as mentioned here) under the title Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvinghe van de Oost-Indische reijse van Willem IJsbrantsz Bontekoe (1646), later shortened into a version for the youth: Bontekoe’s boys.


Bontemps, Jean – From Normandy, France.

Combined piracy, smuggling and slaving. Collaborated with the English occupying Le Havre, 1563, looted ships sailing from other French ports. (John > Hawkins, April 1565:) “While at anchor here [La Guaira] a French slaver, Green Dragon, of Le Havre, Captain Bontemps, arrived from the Guinea coast with news that he had been driven off by Portuguese galleys before completing his cargo of slaves.” In 1567 commanded a fleet of four large ships and some smaller ones sailing for the West Indies. Blundering into an British expedition under John > Lovell (with whom he had scraped an acquaintance during a Hawkins voyage) he joined.forces with him while trying to sell the cargo of  “black ivory” per forza to Spanish colonists in Venezuela. Then left Lovell’s company, seized a richly laden Spanish galleon and sold his slaves at Santa Marta (now in Colombia). Before returning to Europa raided and looted the North and South coasts of Hispaniola, also taking 12 prizes. Returned to the Caribbees in 1570 but lost his life trying to have the Spanish buy his goods.


Boon, John

Technically not a pirate, but expelled from the Council of Carolina “for holding correspondence with pirates”, 1687.


Bootel Oosterlingh, Matthijs van – Barbary corsair from the Netherlands. Ca. 1619.

Sailed under Jan > Jansz van Haarlem. Followed his superior in “turning Turk” and marrying a Spanish 14 years old girl in Alger ‘though married and father of a girl in Amsterdam.


Booth, George – From England.

Gunner on board of the piratevessel Dolphin cruising in the Indian Ocean from 1694. Attacked by a British naval squadron off the coast of the island of  Ste. Marie, Madagascar, September 1699. Burned the ship and fled to the continent (Madagascar). Took command of the gang and captured a French tradingvessel. Joined J. > Bowen and his crew. In April 1700 Bowen took a 450-ton slave ship Speaker, 50 guns, near the entrance of the Red Sea. Her cargo was valued at a prize of 100.000 pounds. The men elected Booth for captain. Sailed to Zanzibar at the end of that year with a crew of 200 of many nationalities. Under attack of Arab troops when ashore for provisions (> Herault, Samuel). Was killed on the spot.


Booth, Samuel – From Charleston, South Carolina.

One of > Bonnet’s men. Hanged November 8, 1718, at Charleston, South Carolina.


Bootman, John

One of John > Philips’men. Tried on the 12th of May, 1724, but honourably acquitted.


Boquets, Pierre de – Buccaneer from France.

Pardoned by the French king, 5 August 1685.


Borak Reys – Barbary corsair.

Commanded one of the two kokas, immense big galleys with masts of several trees spliced together. 40 men in armour might stand in the maintop and fire upon enemies. The ship’s complement consisted of 2.000 soldiers and sailors (oarslaves included). Fought in the battle of Zonchio (Navarino), 1499. Threw burning pitch into the galleys, burnt up crews and ships till caught fire himself and perished (“after performing prodigies of valour”) in the flames. Wherefore the island of Prodano is by the Turks called Borak Isle to this day.


Borchat – Viking from Norway. Ca. 550.



Sailed in John > Hawkins’s fleet, 1595.


Boreman – From the Isle of Wight.

Lieutenant in a man-of-war but in a merchant vessel when forced into piracy by captain > White. Later became one of the “Fraternity”, operating with White in the Indian Ocean from Madagascar. “Came to the mouth of the Red Sea, and fell in with 13 sail of Moors’ Ships, which they kept company with the greater part of the day. Those who push’d for boarding desired him to take the command. But he said he would not usurp on any, that nobody was more fit for it than he who had it, that for his part, he would stand by his fuzil, and went forward to the forecastle with such as would have had him taken command, to be ready to board; which tehy accordingly did, and coming up with the sternmost ship, fired a broadside in to her, which killed two Moors, clapp’d her on board and carry’d her; but night coming on, made only this prize, which yielded them 500 l. per man.”


Borg, Eugenio – Maltese corsair. Ca. 1704.


Borgar – From Danmark.

One of > Alf’s men. During the epic fight, veiled in romantic mystery, struck off > Alfhild’s helmet, whereupon Alf saw he must “fight with kisses and not with arms”. Wedded Alfhild’s attendant, Groa, and had by her a son, Harald.”


Borgne, Michel le – Flibuster from Dieppe, France. 17th century.


Borgne-Fesse > Golif, Louis le


Borough, Robert – From Devonshire, England.

Commanded trwo ships olicensed to prey on French vessels but captured a rich merchantship from Holland instaed, selling her cargo in Southampton, 1543.


Borras, de – Maltese corsair from France.

Flying the Spanish flag harrassed muslim shipping in Egyptian and Palestinian waters, ca. 1732.


Borselen, Hendrik van – From the Netherlands. (1394-1474)

Involved in the seawars between the  Netherlands and German Hanze-towns. Equipped trading- and war vessels, often for pirate activities, and dealt out lettres de marque and passports. Robbed 22 Prussian saltships off Brest during a war against Wendian towns (1438-’41), a robbery that caused the Dutch towns to pay a yearly ransom. In 1446 admiral-general in the service of France, after 1452 admiral in the Netherlands. Beat an English fleet under the duke of Warwick, 1469-’70.


Bosbeeck, Adrianus Joannes (Jan) – From Baesrode near Dendermonde, Flanders. (1763-1817?)

Aka De Jonge Schipper (the Young Skipper), Jan Bosman, Jan de Brabander, Jan van Sissen, Jan Bonnier, Jan van Rosmaalen, Friedrich Blank.

      Leader of the “Hollandse Bende” (Dutch Gang; > Baas, Jan). A good looking fellow, “5 foot 3, with long brown hair in a tail” and a womanizer. In 1798 married a well-to-do woman who had not much idea of his doing and/or whereabouts. Said to be a trader in gold & jewelry. When young had served as a soldier in the Austrian army and in ships sailing the Schelde River, also worked in shipyards. Learned the trade of thieving from a woman in the South of Holland. Was arrested and put in prison in 1790 but soon regained his freedom; then organised a gang of thieves in Antwerp, learning the gang-business of a master-thief called Moyse Jacob. Inbetween “hunting-expeditions” led a roving life in parts of Holland, Flanders and Northern France. Settled in 1797 in Holland (then called Batavian Republic) and organised the “Hollandse Bende” there, operating from Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Den Bosch - on foot and, mostly, from the sea. After his second-in-command > Engelen was arrested, went with his wife (leaving a concubine with child) to Hamburg where he started a brothel/lodging house for sailors called De Drie Listige Matroose (The Three Smart Seamen). The justice’s arm reached long by then: Bosbeeck was arrested together with his wife. It took Marianna Petter one year to prove her innocence but Bosbeeck scaped after a day. Was arrested in Danmark. Escaped again during his transport to The Hague, Holland. Wandered through Europe working here & there untill 1803, joining a gang of petty thieves in Hessen and Darmstadt, Germany. Was arrested for the last time in June 1811 and sent to suffer a lifesentence in 1817. Probably died in the Marburg prison the same year.


Bosch, Jean du – Seabeggar from Aalst, the Spanish Netherlands.

Aka Meneer Bosje (mister wood). Captain, 1568.


Boscher, Jacques – Corsair from France.

A  hard-headed man, calm and quiet when circumstances asked for it. Cousin to Dugay-Trouin. Distinguished himself in the taking of English Eastindiaman London, January 26, 1696.


Bosschert – From the Netherlands. Merchantman.

Served in the Indiaman Groningen under command of > Bontekoe during actions in Chinese waters.


Bot, Pierre > Blot, Pierre


Botadilla, Pedro de – From Spain.

Commanded two vessels plunering Italian shipping, ca. 1519. Was taken by a vessel from Genoa.


Boteler – From England.

Noted for his efficient technique of musketry when boarding. Would immediately send ten musket shots at the least movements of a port lid of the enemy’s ship. 17th century.


Both Odor and Mountain – From China. c. 1810.


Botson, Robert

Serveed in the sloop Revenge of Antiguathat was taken by a Spanish costaguarda. With 12 others marooned at Dominica without clothing, guns or any equipment. Was lucky to be discovered by > Anstis’s men. The 13 men did not hesitate to join the pirates, February 1720.


Botta – From Galela, the Moluccas.

“Feared even by his fellow-men because of his brute temper”. Had his base at Tametie, N of the Goraietjie-Archipelago. Saw this base destroyed by a Dutch naval force, 1873.


Botter, Dicke – Seabeggar from Den Briel, Holland.

In the night of 2-3 of March 1571 the village of Schellingwoude, Holland, was laid under attack by a wild bunch of 25 seabeggars as ordered by Willem > Blois van Treslong (his first action as a seabeggar). Botter was a former inhabitant of this village and was used as a guide. The church and some houses were plundered.


Bouboulina, Laskarina – From Greece. 19th century.

A famous, and now revered, rover turned freedom fighter.


Bouchard, Hipolito de – From France.

Fought in the naval forces of patriots of the Republic of the Río de la Plata (Argentina) in a war for independence from Spain. Obtained a commission for operations into the South Atlantic as far as the Cape of Good Hope. However, visioning great fame for himself, took 44-gun 671-ton Argentina, with some 450 sailors and 150 soldiers through the Indian Ocean to the Pacific. 1817. Intented to blockade Manila and plunder Spanish ships but virtually took the role of a pirate leader, seeking prizes for self aggrandizement. His ship was privately-owned by a wealthy and influential resident of Buenos Aires. On their way to Manila many died of scurvy. Did not meet with success at Manila, but captured a large schooner off Northern Luzon in the Philippines. A prize crew was put aboard and both ships voyaged to China where the schooner was refitted as consort and fighting ship. Returning to the Philippines to resume the operations against Spanish shipping the schooner erred off, never to be seen again by Bouchard. After a string of misfortunes decided to sail across the Pacific to the Hawaiian Islands. At Kealakekua got the information that a “Spanish” vessel anchored nearby had been purchased b the Hawaiian king. Recognized her as being the corvette Santa Rosa, a ship that once had sailed for the same cause he now represented. She had been hijacked by another pirate called > Griffiths. By forging a document granting him power to seize this ship, tricked the king into releasing her. Pardoned her crew, mostly because he need additional hands. Displaying further effrontery, demanded through the king’s secretary vegetable and food staples to fill the supplies aboard his Argentina. Ten sailed to Honolulu for refitting and crash lessons in discpline for the respective crews. Commissioned one > Marin as captain i  his Santa Rosa in the “Patriotic Armies” of the Buenos Aires government and as a representative of King Kamehameha and the Hawaiian Kingdom.

      Sailed from Hawaii for California, with a crew of 360: Sandwich Islanders, Americans, Spaniards, Portuguese, blacks, Philippino’s, Malays and some English and Scots. November 20, 1818 anchored in Monterey Bay and opened fire on Monterey’s fort. His shots being answered by a volley of cannon balls Argentina moved in and sent the following message to shore: “Dear Sir: Since the king of Spain has declared ‘bloody war’ on the Americans who do not wish to exist under his dominion (...) Therefore, having crossed the Pacific Ocean to this coast, I desire the surrender of your city with all the furniture and other belongings of the king. If you do not do so, the city will be reduced to cinders, and also the other surroundig villages. It is within my power to bring about this destruction. (...) May God keep you many years.”

      Governor Sola replied that “the great monarch had confided to him its command [the fort &c.] to defend it and keep it under his rule; that he should use force as threatened (...) and that while there was a man alive in the province he [Bouchard] could not succeed in his plan (...) since all its inhabitants would shed the last drop of blood in his service.” Regular warfare. But when Bouchard marched on El Castillo, the few “dedicated Montereyans” who not already left town were now heading inland.

      On December 1st, after almost total destruction of the port city of Monterey and the Presidio (the stronghold on the hill) the marines of Argentina sailed, unmolested, from the bay. (See also > Brown, Guillermo)

       Later in 1819 a brigantine fled from Chili to Hawaii, Bouchard sent word to Marin to have the king seize her as a prize beloning to Chili. The letter was ignored.


Bouche, Olivier de la > Levasseur, Olivier


Boudan, Jacob – From Flanders, Holland.

One of > Shelvocke’s men. Stayed behind on Juan Fernandez Island, October 1720.


Boudart – From La Rochelle, France.

Hanged by the Portuguese at Mozambique for having pillaged their caravels. 1530.


Bouff, Jan de – From the Netherlands. C. 1600.


Bough – From England.

One of the captains who harrassed the waters near the Strait of Gibraltar selling the loot in Ireland. Pardoned by the king. Ca. 1610.


Boulaye, de la – Flibuster.

One of the captains who sailed with Laurens de > Graaf. 1680.


Boulengier, Philippe le – Seabeggar from the Netherlands.


Bouma, Hessel – From Friesland.

Served under Grote > Pier.


Bour, Louis le – From France.

Commander of a sloop surprised by HMS Scarborough at an island off the Venezuelan coast. Escaped with 50 men and a “considerable quantity of gold and silver” but his prize and 18 of his men were captured and taken for trial at St. Kitts. 1718. Reported “pretended to be Robbin Hoods Man”.


Bourdas, Etienne – Corsair from St. Malo, France.

Fought bravely and died bravely in a fight against the English rover William > Deatz. 18th century.


Bourdeau – Flibuster from France. Ca. 1680.


Bourke > Burke, Richard-an-Iarainn


Bourn, Thomas > Brown, Thomas


Bournano, Jean – Flibuster from Metz, France. (1648-95)

Aka Bernanos. Cavalry officer. Led a force against Chepo, 1678. Captained a 90-tons 6-guns ship in 1679, carrying a crew of 86. Joined > Sharp in his expedition to assault the town of Santa Maria at the Darien Coast, February 1680. Ran into arguements with Sharp because felt the jungle trail too dangerous. Took a pardon of the French and, as Le Sieur de Barnanos, commanded Schitié, armed with 8 guns and manned by a crew of 60, in 1684, flagship of a fleet of five with the captains > Grogniet, > Blot, > Vigneron and > Petit. Under the name and title of  “Le Major Bernanos, capitaine de flibustiers”  remembered as “the bravest man there ever was in the colony [St. Domingue].” Married a girl named Marguerite Bastard in Port-de-Paix,1684. Retired as a planter in 1687, was elected mayor in Port-de-Paix, 1693. Took part in the invasion of Jamaica, June to August 1694, disembarked in > Bluefield’s Bay with 60 men to destroy a plantation before withdrawing. Served in the allied fleet of 25 large French and 8 Spanish vessels totalling 4.000 men against the British in St. Domingue, July 15 1695. “Bernanos avec 130 hommes se mit en marche le 18. & arriva le 21 [dans le Savanne de Limonade].‘’ Was killed during this action.


Bouse, le – From France.

In command of a 20-gun ship and a crew of 170 chased a British ship for twelve hours, then fired a broadside of “double round and partridges, and a volley of small shot”, meaning that each gun was loaded with two round cannonballs and a bag of partridge shot, a lethal combination at close range, and accompanied by a volley of fire by musquets. This bombardment wiped the crew off the deck and shattered hull, rigging and sails of the victim ship so that she surrendered without a fight, July 1717. Probably the same man as La Bouche aka  Olivier > Levasseur.


Bousquet, Pierre

Aka Peter Delvain aka Peter Bosket. Shows up in a novel about the female rovers > Bonny and > Read but is almost certainly a fictional character.


Boutier, Pierre

One of > Béthencourt’s men.


Bouwen, Claes Oly – Seabeggar from Amsterdam, Holland.


Bouwens, Dirck Liesbetsz – Seabeggar from Medemblik, Holland. Diker.


Bouwens, Gilles – Barbary corsair from Hoorn, Holland. Algers, ca. 1619.


Bouwens, Thijmen Liesbetsz – Seabeggar from Medemblik, Holland. Carpenter.


Bouwensz, Gelein – Seabeggar from Middelburg, Sealand.

Fitted a ship out in La Rochelle, France, 1571. Involved in the taking of the town of Den Briel, 1572.


Bowen – From Bristol, England.

Also contrived to prey upon Breton seamen who daringly pestered the South coast of England and Wales. Captured 14 of them and had them put in prison. 1537.


Bowen, Essex

Forced a woman called Mary Ann Talbot on board his vessel, compelling her to wear men’s clothing to “protect her from seamen”.  Abused her himelf. “She died of wounds at the age of 30”. No date given.


Bowen, John – From Bermuda.

Aka The Gentleman Adventurer of Bermuda. Moved to South Carolina and was promoted to the post of captain of a tradingvessel in the West Indies. Was captured by French pirates and taken on board. Had to take part in their adventures in the Atlantic, along the African coasts and finally their shipwreck on the SW-coast of Madagascar. Decided to become a pirate himself. After 18 months the gang was picked up by captain > Read and when aboard this vessel they took over a stolen Arab ship. In the Persian Gulf was elected sailing master. In Madagascar waters again joined forces with George > Booth. Captured the French Speaker, owned by an English company interested in the slave trade. Was elected to be her master after Booth was killed in Zanzibar. Had several black men in his crew, “very cuning and well trained in the use of arms”, sold 4 of them to pay for food and other necessities. Seized an Indian vessel near Bab el Mandeb, the entrance of the Red Sea, representing a booty of at least a 100.000 pounds, 1700. Took a British ship one year later, and sold her on the Indian coast.

     Lost his Speaker off the Island of Mauritius, then owned by the Dutch, but saved most of the men and the rich cargo. Because of large bribes (2.100 pieces of 8 all together), the Dutch governor welcomed the men friendly. After three month of nursing their wounds procured a sloop and sailed for Madagascar, March 1702, where Bowen erected a fort and built a town. In the port of Maritan on this island he and 4 men pretended to buy merchandise from the ship Speedy Return of the Scottish African and East India Company, her captain and several of the complement not being aboard at the time. Drew pistol and hanger and forced the crew into a cabin, then brought 40 of his men aboard. Took to “a-pyrating” with this vessel and a brigantine, linking forces with Thomas > Howard, his former quartermaster. Met with great succes, gaining over a million dollars in coin.

      “Arrived February 1703 safely at St. Augustine’s Bay [after plundering Pembroke, > Francisco de > Cruse] but tarrying too long cleaning and victualling, the winds hung contrary and she could not get up to Mayotta, so went to Johanna. When she came in she found a Dutchman, and anchoring within small shot, saluted him with 11 shotted guns which the Dutchman returned with 15 like manner. At this salute the Dutchman was surprised and being under some apprehension he hailed the Pirate who returned answer, ‘From the Seas’. Bowen then sent his boat and brought aboard their Quartermaster who assured the Dutch captain they had no design against him, but were going against the Moors. However the Qartermaster went ashore to where the Dutchman had made his factory and shot down four of his oxen which he ordered the natives to cut into pieces. On this the Dutchman perceiving a friendship between the natives and the Pirates and hearing that two more Pirates were expected, tarried no longer but went off in the night leaving all his goods ashore. (...) Speedy Return sailed to the Malabar Coast, six days later Howard joined his consort. Whilst lying at Rajapura they held survey on both their ships, and finding them less serviceable than Bowen’s Prize they transferred both crews aboard the Moors ship, which they mounted with 56 guns and re-named Defiance. They now mustered 164 Europeans of which 43 were English, about 50 French, the remainder being Danes, Dutchmen and Swedes.” According to a letter in the Madras Records (September 1703), the cash taken by Bowen amounted to $ 88.000 or rials, and Howard 1.680.000 rupees.

     Divided the plunder at Rajapura, India. Used his head and settled down with 40 of his crew amongst his Dutch friends in Mauritius to a comfortable life on shore but ill tongues like to say he died of disease approximately six months later.


Bowlegs, Billy

Must have been of a greedy character since he is reported to have hidden treasure sometime in the early 1800’s, at three different spots. Spot one is close to, or even in Pensacola’s Fort San Carlos, a Spanish 17th century bastion. In a cavern. People say he hid some $ 3.000.000 in treasure there. Of course old maps authenticate the existence of the treasure, and also the location of a fort’s tunnel. Not far away from this spot at Florida’s Gulf Coast, just some miles further South along the “Highway of the Seas”, one reaches a beach where Bowlegs buried coins contained in small leather pouches in the sand, and silver bars under 7 feet of sand and shell. Beach erosion has laid bare some of these bars. Also buried three chests under a palm tree somewhere near Apalache Bay in the Upper Gulf Area. Other pirate loot is known to be nearby, according to local pirate lore that is.

      Billy Bowlegs is the nickname of William > Rogers.


Bowman, John

Mate on many slaving vessels from 1765 to 1774. Led negro raiding parties on African rivers, instructed by his captain, Mr. Strangeways. His 25 to 35 warriors (“all dressed with some kind of skins, and with great caps upon their heads and with their faces painted white in order to make them look dreadful”) asked for rum, tobacco and ammunition for payment. Bowman usually waited on a bank, with four men to guard him, for their return. “Saw the attacked towns in flames and professed to have been affected by this as well as by the wails of the 25 or 30 captives of all ages, who were soon being tugged towards him along the forest paths, hands tied and with ropes round their necks.” Came across many more deserted or ruined towns and villages on the coast and deep inland, “depopulated by slave-raiders (...) it was war that had destroyed all the villages, and the inhabitants taken out and sold to the white men.” Incidently formed a high opinion of African honesty and industry.


Bowman, Robert

One of > Shelvocke’s men. Deserted with > Hatley in prizeship Mercury, March 1720.


Bowman, William – Buccaneer.

A tailor of his trade and one of > Dampier’s party which crossed the Isthmus of Darien in 1681. > Wafer records he was “a weakly man” and that he “slipped while crossing a swollen river, and was carried off by the swift current, and nearly drowned by the weight of a satchel he carried containing 400 pieces of  8”. What happened was that 5 buccaneer stragglers were trying to make it back to the Caribbean and tried to cross a swollen river. A tree had been felled by other buccaneers so it lay across the river as a bridge. Boweman was the last to try, lost his grip and tumbled into the torrent below. Was swept away and the four left gave him up for lost. However, the tracks of the main column before them had beencovered by flash floods. The four decided to go back via the slippery log. Continueing along the bank they found Bowman a quarter of a mile downstream. He had been able to haul himself out of the water after grabbing overhanging branches. A lucky man, escaping the fate of George > Gayny some time earlier, drowned in a flood.


Boyang – From Mattan, Borneo.

Anachoda (from the Arab nakuda: captain) of a  prahu based at Kandanangan in as fleet of eight or ten large pirate prahu’s with at least 200 men under overall command of > Tjekra. During their raids the women and children, and also the old and the slaves, stayed behind, having a prahu cruise the mouth of the river for their protection. They than lived of fishing, eating the leaves of trees and the rice the men had left behind. The children hardly touched the shore, they were brought up with  piracy and piracy would finally become their raison d’être. When Tjerka, Boyang, > Oemar Ismael, > Mattie and the others were cruising they were able to put up pre-fab tents of katjang and atap on the beaches. This Eastindian people were (like the Bajau) called “sea gypsies”.


Boyd, Robert – From Bath Town, North Carolina.

One of > Bonnet’s men in the ship Royal James. Hanged at Charleston, Carolina, 8 November 1718.


Boyer, Jacques – From France. (1682-1719)

Sailing as a cabin boy became a pirate when his ship, a French slaver, was captured by George > Booth (1697). Was with > Bowen until 1704, then felt he had enough money to live in comfort. Settled in Réunion in the Indian Ocean, bought at least 5 properties and paid for in cash. Married a girl 11 years of age. Because male settlers did not enjoy full citizenship until they had married, pirates did so very soon after retiring on this island; marriage was a condition of acceptance by the colony’s government. The happy family produced 6 children.


Boyga, Manuel – From Colombia.

One of > Gibert’s “swarthy band of cut-throats” in the rakish, black schooner Pinda. Hanged at Boston, June 1835. Had cut his throat witha piece of tin, and was “so weakened by loss of blood that he was supported to the gallows, and seated in a chair on the drop when it fell”.


Boyte, Philip – From Portland, England.

Captained the 60-ton Golden Hynde. Seized in consort with Clinton > Atkinson an Italian merchant vessel off the coast of Spain. Took her cargo to Weymouth but was arrested. Hanged in London, 1580.


Boyza > Boyga, Manuel


Brabajon > Barbazon


Bradelet – Flibuster from France.

In command of one of the four vessels (Saint Pierre)  fit for shallow waters when attacking La Ranchería, situated on the river Hache between Cartagena and Santa Marta. His mission was to organise victuals, necessary before > Morgan’s raid on Panama. It took the chasse-partie (the expedition) a whole day to overpower the valiantly fighting Spanish soldiers. Which feat facilitated the burgers to flee with their valuables. However, they were “packed and sacked” and so easily followed and captured. The captives were assembled in the church and the loot in a cloister nearby. This cloister “resembled a palace, with baroque ornaments, gold, sculptures and bowls, a huge cross and many guilded objects needed for religious manipulations”. This robber’s den now was plundered by a different kind of thieves. Also sufficient stores of wheat and maize were discovered.


Bradinham, Robert

> Kidd’s surgeon and one of the two who had deserted Adventure Galley at St. Mary’s, Madagascar, 1697. Attended to > Moore after Kidd’s assault. Left Kidd at St. Marie to join > Culliford. Returned to New York with > Shelley. Was arrested in Pennsylvania and sent to England for trial. In May 1701, when Kidd was convicted he argued that at least two prizes were legally taken because they carried French passes (the war with France had not ended yet). Said that he and Joseph > Palmer had joined up with > Culliford’s Mocha and knew nothing about Kidd’s conduct after Mocha left. Turned king’s evidence against Kidd in order to save his own neck. Kidd possessed letters patents that empowered him to take pirates. When the judge at the trial put up the question “Why did you [Kidd] not take Culliford?” Bradinham testified: “He [Kidd] took a cup of Bumboe, and swore to be true to them” and said that Kidd gave Culliford 4 cannon and an anchor. With other words, Kidd sought cordial relations with other pirates rather than hunting them down. Bradinham and Palmer also said that Kidd held a formal share out of the spoils, the bales of silks and muslins and other mechandise were divided into 160 shares. Kidd kept 40 for himself, and divided the rest among the crew. Bradinham and Palmer were the crown’s chief witnesses, told thoroughly rehearsed stories, careful to paint Kidd as a man who had intended piracy all along. “This man contradicts himself in a hundred places,” Kidd said of Brandinham. “He tells a thousand lies.” Lies or not, Kidd was hanged May 23, 1701, Bradinham and Palmer were not.


Bradish, Joseph – From Cambridge, Massachusetts. (1672-1700)

March 1698 shipped as bosun’s mate in Adventure, bound for Borneo on an interloping trade. Mutinied with the crew in September of that year because of the behaviour of the captain, Gulleck, who starved and mistreated the crew. Shared in the money that was found in 9 chests, amounting to about 3.700 Spanish dollars. There were about 25 men aboard, was chosen commander because of his skill in navigation. Sold some cargo at Mauritius, then sailed her to Long Island on March 19, 1699 and, leaving money and jewels on Nassau Island, sank her. Most of the crew took to a fresh pair of heels with their share and disappeared. Bradish and a few others saw themselves arrested and imprisoned in the Boston Gaol. Escaped with the help of a relation but a reward of 200 pound brought him back. Although they had not attacked other vessels, the Adventure-crewmen were outlawed as pirates. Bradish was taken to England with the infamous > Kidd and other pirates for trial. Hanged in chains in London at Hope Dock.


Bradish, Samuel

One of the St. Mary pirates who planned to retire in New York but was caught there with 2.005 pieces of 8 worth 942 pounds sterling in New York money, 1699.


Bradley, George

Sailing master of > Fenn’s Morning Star, wrecking the ship on the Grand Caymans in August 1722. Fenn and a few others had just been taken on board by > Anstis’s ship Good Fortune when two King’s ships arrived. Hid in the woods with the crew and killed the time by playing fool theater. Performed the role of judge in a mock trial, sitting in a tree with a tarpaulin over the shoulders instead of a robe, a shaggy cap on his head by way of a wig and a large pair of spectacles on the nose. The officers stood by with handspikes as staves of authority and a hangman fooled around with a noose. A pirate playing the attorney general made quite a speech over the head of the accused who made “a thousand sour faces”:

       “An’t please Your Lordship, and you Gentlemen of the Jury, here is a fellow before you that is a sad dog, a sad, sad dog; and I humbly hope your Lordship will order him to be hanged out the way immediately. He has committed piracy on the high seas, and we shall prove, an’t you please your Lordship, that this fellow, this sad dog before you, has escaped a thousand storms, nay, has got safe ashore when the ship has been cast away, which was a certain sign he was not born to be drowned. Yet not having the fear of hanging he went on robbing and ravishing man, woman and child, plundering ships’ cargoes fore and aft, burning and sinking ships, bark and boat, as if the Devil had been in him. My Lord, I should have spoken much finer that I do now but, as your Lordship knows, our rum is all out, and how should a man speak good law that has not drunk a dram. However I hope,  your Lordship will order the fellow hanged.”

      Answered from his seat in the mangrove tree:

      “Hark me, sir, you lousy pitiful, ill-looking dog; what have you to say why you should not be tucked up immediately and set a sun-drying like a scarecrow?”

      In his defense the accused said he was an honest man who had been “taken by one George Bradley, a notorious pirate, a sad rogue as ever was hanged, and he forced me, an’t you please, your Honour.”

      So Bradley sent him to hang, giving him three convincing reasons:

      “First, because it is not fit I should sit here as judge and nobody be hanged. Second, you must be hanged because you have a damned hanging look. And third, you must be hanged because I am hungry. For know, sir, that whenever a judge’s dinner is ready before the trial is over, the prisoner is to be hanged of course. That is the law for you, you dog. So take him away, gaoler.”

       Pirates hated, feared and despised the law “that was made to protect the rich against the poor”.

       Later surrendered to an English sloop. Was taken to the Bermudas, escaped and fled to Bristol, England.


Bradley, Joseph – Flibuster from England.

Aka Bradelet and John Brodely. One of Eduard > Mansvelt’s captains who attacked Costa Rica and Providence Island, 1665. Colonel. He had “smelt a quantity of powder: was brave as a lion, resourceful as a sailor, and, for a flibuster, most prudent.” Seized a prize from a Spanish corsair in Havana harbour, 1670.

      In the great raid to Panama City, 1671, was chosen by Henry > Morgan to command the expedition (470 men in three ships) to the fortress of San Lorenzo at the mouth of the Chagres river. Brought his ships to anchor in a bay about a league from the castle. “Early in the morning turned his hands up and bade them breakfast off their beef and parched corn.” John Masefield says: “The ruffians from Sta Catalina took their stations at the head of the leading company, with trusty pirates just behind them to pistol them if they played false.” This kind of warfare had not much to do with searoving, nevertheless it was part of a life as a pirate. The way led through mangrove swamps, in the filth, in the heat haze, in a mist of mosquitos. Mansfield: “In all probability they were swearing at themselves for coming hither.” And the castle turned out to be a impregnable desaster. The main fort crowned a cliff to seaward; behind it, a deep cleft spanned by a drawbridge formed a natural moat, and every other approach wasa guarded by double palisades fronted by a 12-foot ditch. 350 soldiers manned these forbidden ramparts.

      Was greeted by a volley that left the ground strewn with dead and wounded. Spent the rest of the days ducking balls. The night permitted to creep closer. One buccaneer, hit by an arrow, pulled the arrow out of his chest, wrapped the shaft in torn shirt cloth and shot it back into the fort. His powder charge ingnited the wrapping, it in turn set fire to a thatched roof. An exploding powder keg spread the flames and most of the garrison had to leave their posts to fight the blaze. Wormed up the palisades. The stockade burned away. Moved in through the breaches. The Spanish began to leap fown the cliff to escape the horrors of capture. Only 30 survived. By noon castle San Lorenzo was taken, the buccaneers and flibusters loosing 100 dead. Among the 70 wounded was captain Bradley, both his legs crushed by a cannon ball. He died the same night.


Bradley, Samuel

> Kidd’s wife’s younger brother. Was with Kidd from 1695. Owned some property in New York. Signed on with the starboard watch for Adenture Galley’s Indian Ocean voyage. Returned weak and emaciated of sickness since the Comores, begging Kidd to stay at St. Thomas, April 1699. Kidd was dubious about facing his wife without her brother but relented. The relationship between Kidd and Bradley had always been affectionate but the latter had never ceased to heap reproaches on Kidd’s crewmen. May have died at St. Thomas, some reports suggest he returned to New York and died 1702 or 1703.


Bradshaw, James

June 6, 1719, Howel > Davis came alongside the ship Princess of London, under the gunfire of the fort Anamabu, between Cape Coast Castle and Accra, West Africa. Davis had his black flag raised. The Princess’s mate asked what the pirate wished him to do. Davis told him and his men to come aboard. Seven men were to follow the mate. Among them was the later so famous Bartholomew > Roberts. And James Bradshaw. Both had no wish to become pirates but changed their opinion in the second week of July.

     Joined > Kennedy’s men. Returned to England but was betrayed when working as housekeeper of the Cock, a public house in Cock Lane in Spitalfields. Was indicted by a Middlesex magistrate on 19 March 1721, to be tried  a the next admiralty sessions on 3 July. Got in dire straits when colleague Thomas > Grant said he had been active in Kennedy’s pirate ship and on at least two occasions had accepted a share of the plunder. A surprise witness appeared  in the person of > Eastwell, who affirmed Bradshaw had assuredly been forced, and that he had tried to escape at every opportunity. Although found guilty and returned to the care of Wm. Pitt, the keeper of Newgate, Eastwell secured him a remission.


Brameren > Brayhim Reys


Bran – Buccaneer from England.

Aka Brand. Commanding a 80 men-ship sacked Portobelo in 1668 when part of > Morgan’s fleet. Raided Campeche, Mexico, with Rock > Brasiliano, 1669.


Brand, Bartel – From Vlissingen (Flushing), Zeeland, the Republic of the United Netherlands.

Aka Brandt. Active with his brother Lyn > Brand durig the Anglo/Dutch Wars. A corsair rather than a pirate.


Brand, Ellis

In command of the sloop Lyme and the combined land and sea operation to trap Edw. > Teach’s pirates in North Carolina, 1718. Marched South at the head of the land forces. After Teach’s defeat searched the barn of Secretary Knight (who was in league with Blackbeard aka Teach) and found 20 containers of sugar and 2 bales of cotton hidden under fodder. Knight had denied he had any sugar. The unauthorized invasion of North Carolina from Virginia with deadly result for the pirates, as well as the illegal seizure of the sugar, cotton and cocoa from Knight and govenor Eden, was to be justified by portraying Blackbeard as an evil and monstrous ciminal and by blackening the names of Eden, Knight and their cronies.


Brand, Lyn - From Vlissingen, Zeeland, Republic of the United Netherlands.

Active with brother Bartel Brand during the Anglo/Dutch Wars. Corsair rather than a pirate.


Brand, Marinus – Seabeggar from the Netherlands.

Former diker. Captain. Brave but wild. Was the first man to drop anchor to capture the town of Den Briel, April 1572. Carried the revolution farther inland. Showed up at the town of Gorcum with thirteen ships and demanded the town, June 26 1572. Broke down statues in the churches and inspired a group of protestants to face the (catholic) magistracy and citizens. Could not prevent his superior > Lumey’s hanging of 19 catholic priests. No one expected him to join the Spanish enemy, 24 Januari 1574.


Brand, William

Probably a fictional character of Howard Pyle, the artist who gave us so many splendid pirate pictures. Inspired by a London book of 1860: Captain Brand of the Centipede; a pirate of eminence in the West Indies. His loves and exploits, together with some account of the singular manner by which he departed this life (written by H.A. Wise). Pyle left the reader of his Book of Pirates (1921) this catchpenny song:


Oh, my name was Captain Brand


       And a-sailing;

Oh, my name was Captain Brand,

       A-sailing free.

Oh, my name was Captain Brand,

And I sinned by sea and land,

For I broke God’s just command,

       A-sailing free.


Brandinham > Bradinham, Robert


Brandt, Dirck – Seabeggar from Stade, Germany.


Brandt, Johan – Seabeggar from Gent, Flandres.


Brandy > Branly


Branly – Flibuster

Aka Brandy, a fit name for any sea rover. Among 264 French drifters who joined a buccaneer & flibuster expedition into the Pacific, April 11, 1685. In command of a ship with 36 men, “some English, some French,” says > Dampier, in a fleet of 10 sail. Sprung his main-mast during the passage to  Quibo, therefore left with all men his ship and came aboard captain Edward > Davis.


Bras, Pedro – From Portugal.

In 1555, during a French/Hispanic war sold his services to Jacques > Sore.


Bras-de-Fer, Alexandre – Flibuster.

Probably a fictive character, described as have been “brave, chivalrous, and vain.” Also as “active and handsome, courageous and possessed of cool judgment, which helped him out of many critical situations”. The perfect pirate. Too good to be true. The name alone is a challenge: Iron Arm. Earned this nickname because of his strength. Although his life is an unending story of adventurous incidents, > Exquemelin is the only historian who records any of them. Did he make him up to grace the French with their pirate hero, the like of the Dutchman De > Graaf and the Englishman > Morgan?

     Had his ship sunk and half of his crew killed when during an electrical storm lightining set fire to the powder magazine, blowing up that part of the vessel in which it was stored. Washed upon the shore of an unfriendly island the survivors recovered sufficient muskets and ammunition to arm themselves. Attacked a Spanish merchantman laden with war material who, attracted by the luxuriance of the foliage, and in want of fresh water, stood in for the coast. Her boats were lowered en some of the crew cautiously made their way from the shore into the island. Taken by surprise a grim fight followed and Bras de Fer of course fought the gallant Spanish shipmaster. Aimed a blow at his head, but his sword glanced from the steel skull-cap. Endavoured to repeat the blow, lost balance and fell to the ground. His foe tried to take advantage of the situation but our hero wrenched the sword out of his hand. The Spanish were killed to the last man and Bras-de-Fer had his men clothed in their garments. Then pulling the broad-brimmed hats over their eyes and shouting cries of victory marched to the boats. Soon the enemy was overpowered and the vessel proved a valuable prize, also enabled Bras-de-Fer to extend the scope of his operations. Of these there is no record.


Brasiliano, Rock – Buccaneer from Groningen, the Netherlands. 17e century.

Aka Roche or Roc (from: rogue) aka Gerrit Gerritsz. A silent man of stout build, strong and vigorous with a short and wide face, the eyebrows large and bushy. Seemed to have been remarkable for the amount of hair on his chest, which gave him the appearance of a bear. According to > Exquemelin, he had “no self control at all, but possessed a sullen fury.”

     Emigrated as a youngster to the Dutch colony of Brasil in what is now Baía de todos Santos, Brazil. Suffered terribly when seeing his family slaughtered when the Spaniards and Portuguese retook this territory in 1654. Found his way to Jamaica,where he became known as “Rock the Brazilian” to the Englishmen there. Dreaded because of his unpleasant habit of running amuck when drunk. Sailed with > Mansvelt and Dieuwertje van > Roptama. In Jamaica joined a party of malcontents, quarreled with the captain and stole a small boat. With that a bigger one. The said quarrel probably included the duel with a former shipmate: > Reyning. (also see > Bleekveld)

     His first successful adventure as a commander was the capture of a large plate ship of fabulous value. Brought her safely into Jamaica. From then on became an acknowledged leader, skilful with weapons, a brave fighter and a good pilot. However, the number of voyages he made as a captain is unclear. Usually carried a naked sword in his hand, which he did not hesitate to use on such of his crew as showed themselves idle or mutinous. After each cruise he and his crew returned to Port Royal, Jamaica, and “wasted in a few days... all they had gained, by giving themselves over to every manner of debauchery,” Exquemelin wrote, “and in the end became so audacious that he made all Jamaica tremble.” Once in a drunken frenzy is said to have begun  chopping off the arms and legs of bystanders.

     Bought a 80 tons 12 guns ship from L’> Ollonais in 1668, taking > Lecat as first mate. Sailed for the Mosquito Coast to join Henry > Morgan’s attack on Portobelo, Panama. Also attacked Cumaná, Venezuela, capturing  a fastsailing brigantine which was used as his flagship. “They have been known to spend two or three thousand pieces of eight in one nght,” Exquemélin continued, “and one of them gave a strumpet five hundred to see her naked. They used to buy a pipe of wine, place it in the street and oblige everyone that passed to drink; at other times they would scatter it about in large quantities thinking it excellent diversion to wet the ladies’ clothes as they went along, and force them to run from the showers of wine.”

      Tried to take Campeche twice, “y no sacó de ahí sino dolores de cabeza” (but did not leave with nothing but a headache). The first time, Yucatán historians say, was the result of a shipwreck. “En la primavera de 1669, con 40 hombres de los cuales 34 eran holandeses y los demás ingleses, y Bradley, bloqueaban Campeche, Lecat se quedó patrullando sin lograr ninguna presa.” Had two ships (one of them with a crew of 6 English and 34 Dutch) in the sea, in company with > Bradley’s 80 men frigate, to attack Spanish settlements in Campeche Bay. After gaining nothing lost 2 men in a raid on the port of Lerma. Careened his ship while Lecat logged valuable dyewood.

      Returned after a two months rest. Captured three fishermen off Las Bocas. Under torture one of them revealed that a ship was expected from Veracruz. But before this ship arrived a violent storm wrecked his brigantine. Reached Chicxulub Beach with difficulty. Heartened his men and promised to lead them to safety, but one of the fishermen escaped and informed the authorities in Yucatán that the pirates were ashore. So, when on their way, fatigued, hungry and thirsty, the Brasiliano party was attacked by a detachment of cavalry, outnumbering the buccaneers by three to one, 1669. The scources differ on this matter. Some say Rock and his crew was taken prisoner but later rescued by Lecat. Others had it he was taken to Spain but on board fairly frightened the crew into letting him go by truculant threats of vengeance from his followers. Campeche historians are sure that Rock was taken prisoner and while in prison wrote a letter to the governor telling him that  if not set free a flibuster gang would attack shortly to lay the town in ashes. Others say that the men took up a brave fight so that the Spaniards turned tail and fled. Exquemélin had it the pirates’ muskets slaughtered the horsemen before they could get within pistol range. After a march of two more days the party spotted a well-manned vessel for the protectection of the cutters of wood used in dyeing. Gathered his men at daybreak, when the woodcutters had landed, and took the vessel, with which he took another, then sailed to Jamaica. It is possible that these stories relate to different adventures.

      He and Bradley were wounded  during the attack on San Lorenzo castle at the mouth of the Chagres river during the start of Morgan’s epic march across the Panama Isthmus to the Pacific Coast. Bradley died, Brasiliano did recover sufficiently to join the raid (1670-1).

      Successful pirates have their legends. Here is one: “Brasiliano would roam the town [Basse Terre, Tortuga, or Port Royal, Jamaica] like a madman. The first person he came across, he would chop off his arm or leg, without anyone daring to intervene, for he was like a maniac. He perpetrated the greatest atrocities possible against the Spaniards. Some of them he tied or spitted on wooden stakes and roasted them alive between to fires, like killing  pig.” His hatred of the Spaniards was fanatical indeed. When in such bad moods the only ones who were able to calm him down were fellow Hollanders. A innkeeper in Port Royal, originally from Friesland, discovered how Brasiliano liked to hear some Dutch language, so he used to welcome him with some genuine Dutch swear words. And there was this little Dutch damsel who could soothe him by taking his hand, sitting down with him, saying nothing at all – she was one of those angels who know how to touch the heart of a lonely and desperate man. Maybe the atrocities he saw inflicted on his family in Brazil were the cause of this all.

      His last achievement of which there is any notion was the attack on the town of Mérida on the peninsula of Yucatán, in company of the Frenchman > Triboult. The Spaniards had been forewarned. Met such a severe reception that half of his men were cut to pieces and the rest made prisoners. Escaped. Spaniards, and the French alike, frantically tried to hunt the Groninger sailor down. No one could find him. No bay, no creek, no islet stayed unexplored. People showed up, said they had seen him. Somewhere. Even said they had spoken to him. The search lasted for years on end. No trace. Until it was said that he indeed had vanished from the seas. Only a hurricane could have put him down.


Brassell, James



Member of the company with > Dampier and > Cowley. The latter named one of the Galápagos Islands after him.


Brattle, Nicholas

One of > Roberts’ men, forced out of the galley Cornwall, October 1721. Served “as Musick on board the Pyrate”. On trial in 1722 and acquitted.


Brayhim Reys – Barbary corsair from Turkey.

Aka Ibrahim aka Brameren. Admiral of Algiers, 1669. Vice-admiral Algiers, 1670. Master of a 40-gun ship manned by 46 christians and 300 “Moors”. Burned 1670 by a Dutch fleet under admiral Van Gent.


Breakes, Hiram > Breecklant, Herman


Bréart – Corsair from France.

When the war of succession was declared in Europe in May 1702, the English in the Caribbean did not get the news until July. An English captain challenged Bréart, now a privateer, who once had taken him prisoner. He announced that if Bréart would like his revenge he would be waiting for him off Dominica. The two ships met in combat in a raging storm. Bréart dealt the Englishman a blow with a devastating broadside, killing and wounding a 100 men, and took him as a prize to Martinique. There it was found to have much loot from ships out of St. Christopher (St. Kitts) on board. The prizefighter was not hanged but honoured by a chain and a gold medal.


Breck, John

One of > Quelch’s men in the brigantine Charles. Tried for piracy at Boston, 1704.


Brederode, Frans van (1466-’89)

Studied peacefully at Leuven in the Low Countries where he got involved in a rebellion against some prince. Captained a vessel to prey on merchantmen in Flemish and Sealandish waters and thus started the so-called “Jonker-Fransenoorlog “ (Junker Frans War), 1488. Soon had a fleet of 50 vessels under his command crewed by 2.000 men. Sailed to take Rotterdam and from there Holland. Got stuck in the frozen Maas River, landed his troops and conquered the town, December 1488. Looted the region thoroughly. Defended Rotterdam against a large army but simultaneously attempted to enlarge his terrotorium (Schoonhovem, Schiedam). Indeed took Overschie and from there looted Den Haag, Leiden and Delfland, February 1489. After a siege of six months had to surrender Rotterdam, was permitted to leave the town with all his men and arms. Travelled with this force to Sluis. There created a new fleet. Landed on divers islands in Sealand which he looted. Had to face a huge fleet sent by Maximiliaan van Oostenrijk (Austria), the emperor’s regent. Was defeated. Escaped to the shore from where he continued to fight. Was badly wounded. Imprisoned at Dordrecht. Died from his wounds in August, 1489.


Brederode, Lancelot van – Seabeggar from the Netherlands.

Bastardbrother of the “Great Beggar” Hendrik Brederode. Plundered the island of Rotte in 1569, then mixed with a squadron under > Dolhain. With > Ruychaver and > Menninck assaulted 10 Deventer ships coming from the Norwegian coast (August 31 1570) and more than 20 outlandish craft. Took shortly after this 2 merchantmen and 20 herringbusses off the coast of Ameland. Was promoted to admiral of the seabeggarfleet in the river Eems, September 23 1570. Raided the Dutch countryside, spring 1571. Sailed in consort with > Blois van Treslong after October 1571. One of the leaders of the defense of the town of Haarlem against the Spaniards. Beheaded after the surrender, July 23 1573.


Brederode, Willem van – From the Netherlands. 1427.

Actions in the Zuiderzee, arrested at Wieringen Island, Friesland.


Breecklant, Herman – From Saba, Dutch island in the Caribbean. (1745-17?)

Aka Hiram Breakes. Sailed in a ship trading between Saba and Amsterdam, Holland, in 1764. Met with mrs De Snijder, the wife of a merchant three times her age. Made love to and with her and got the command over a small ship that traded between Schiedam, Holland, and Lisbon, Portugal. Coming home on one his trips found mrs De Snijder in great spirits and mr. De Snijder ailing from some strange disease of which he died. Accused of murdering her husband mrs De Snijder was taken into court but at the trial managed to get acquitted. However, it was al too clear she was expecting a child. Upset by all these events Breecklant took to the sea, convinced his crew of a better life as a pirate.

      Sailed into Vigo, Spain, in full view of the forts, seized a galleon, Acapulco, lately arrived from Valparaiso, Chili. Found 200.000 small bars of gold in her, each one about the size of a man’s finger. Had the captain and crew murdered. Took his men to this vessel, renaming her Adventure and sailed for the Mediterranean. Which sounds like a incredible story, since the warfleets surpressing piracy were very much alert in these waters. Maybe Breecklant was somewhat confused, having the pregnant lady on his mind.

     Set a course to Menorca, one of the Balearics and made an excursion to a convent. Said that they should fit themselves out with a wife, or maybe two wives a piece. Broke in. The nuns had fled into a chapel. Who knows what they feared. But they were old and frail. The men laughed and asked where the young nuns were.

      The Lady Abbess saw them coming: “The leader of the pack was a browntanned youngster. His silken chamise shone on his chest, in his hand a sabre that sparkled like gold. The others behind him, all sturdy, their skins glistening as if they had smeared themselves with olive oil. They went through the courtyard, amidst the white lilies, hyacinths, roses and fresias, not bothering they trempled upon a bed of mirth and mint for the teas the girls drink when they have the hiccups after so much crying of homesickness. The looked at each other, grinning like wolves. The young little nuns sang the Salve Regina like crying angels and this got the men unprepared. They hesitated, listened, but not for long. They entered the church and the girls had not even time to scream. Little sister Ana had been caught by the leader. He pulled her cape up, and her white underwear, and bared her white belly. I can not tell you more.”

     Breecklant “was one of the religious variety of pirates,” says piratologist Gosse, “he would order his crew to clean theselves on the Sabbath and gather on the quarterdeck, where he would read prayers to them and would often preach a sermon ‘after the Lutheran style’.” Then all hands sang songs from the book of psalms, thus fortifying themselves for more work of bloodshed when defense was met. So did the nuns, there was nothing else they could do on board other than pleasing the seamen. (Actually I find this a rather tall tale.)

      Though leading the life of a merry freebooter Breecklant could not forget mrs. De Snijder. Called in at Gibraltar and persuaded the governor to grant him a British privateer’s commission. Sailed back to the Balearics, took some vessels there and set the nuns free. Then retired from robbery and went back to Amsterdam to see his beloved. But found the house empty, the doors sealed up. The neighbours gathered about to tell him why: Mrs. De Snijder had been hanged at the Waag-building in the Nieuwmarkt for poisining her little son. “This trragedy so preyed upon the mind of Captain Breakes,” said Gosse, “that he turned ‘melancholy mad’ and drowned himself.”


Breemen, Dirk van – Seabeggar from Amsterdam, Holland. Jailer.

Active from 1568. Surrendered November 1570 to three pro-Spanish ships and was put in prison in the fortress of Emden, East-Friesland. Had not the right commissions but was set free.


Bréha, Abraham – Flibuster from Vanes, Bretagne, France. (c.1650-85)

Aka Pierre Bart. One of the captains who misguided D’Estrées fleet, 1678. Joined > Grammont to Maracaibo. Bought a vessel to go and fish for turtle but was badly injured when the Spaniards took his little craft. In February 1679 master of the 2-gun frigate Saint François, cruising North of Cuba. With > Blot went wreckdiving, collected silver from the sunken galleon Maravilla, off the Bahama’s. Settled at Petit-Goâve, organised an expedtion with the barcalonga Fortune, February 1681. Planned to sack the capital of Florida, was arrested by admiral Maintenon instead who withdrew his commission and took is men on board of his own ship. Bréha was released in the Bahamas and immediately set to work the wreck of Maravilla again. Sojourned with > Paine to Florida, was repulsed. When captain of the 8-gun Diligente (100 men) (presented to him by > Pedneau) joined the fleet under De > Graaf to sack the town of Santiago de Cuba, November 1683. Due to arguments with Sieur de > Beauregard this plan fell through. Early 1684 sailed in consort with > Tocard pillaging English vessels for food. In July joined > Grammont’s fleet of five ships. This project also met with no success but while cruising the Southern coasts of Cuba Bréha fell in with the Spanish merchantman Nuestra Señora de la Regla laden with wine of the Canaries and European goods. Took this ship after a valiant resistance that cost him 8 men dead. Was apparently pleased with his prize. She, Bréha decided, would become his prizefighter. However, on the orders of governor De Cussy had to join the company of Laurens de Graaf. His 22-gun Señora was attacked by several Spanish navy vessels on September the 10th, 1685 and taken after she lost most of her masts and rigging. The flibusters defended themselves like genuine devils against superior forces, parrying with all their guns, swivel guns and musquets. Now here is confusion. Some sources say this all happened to Pierre > Blot. Anyway, Bréha was taken prisoner in September and hanged with 12 of his men.



Maybe there never was a pirate called Breho but one thing is for sure: there was a pirate who had died in Madagascar Island and when Elizabeth Breho of Newport, Long Island, learned of his death, she wrote to Elias Rowse demanding her husband’s money because she knew Rowse held all his estate. After a delay of one year Rowse replied he had sent the money home with John > Dodd, who lived in New York City. But that was not so: Dodd had also retired on Madagascar and we do not know of him paying Mrs. Breho her 400 pieces of eight.



Aka Brenning. Active from Tortuga and Jamaica. Commanded a 6-gun frigat manned by 70 hands, 1663. Sailed with > Mansvelt in 1666.



One of > Levasseur’s men.


Breville – From St. Malo, France. 18th century.


Brewer, Adam

Officer in one of > Morgan’s ships at the taking of Porto Belo, 1668. On board the ship Oxford when she exploded, 1669. Present at the actions in the Lake of Maracaibo. Master of a 12-ton logwood transporter annex turtlefisher active in the Bay of Campêche, 1670. Settled as a sailmaker at Port Royal, December 1671; as a “marin”, 1673.


Brewer, John

> Drake’s trumpeter in his circumnavigaiton, 1577-’80. Was sent to fetch Thomas > Doughty for the latter’s trial.


Brewster, Adam – Buccaneer from England.

Commanded a ship during Henry > Morgan’s raids on Portobelo, 1668, and Maracaïbo, 1669.


Brewster, Thomas – From England.

Did some little thieving with his hoy on the river Thames. Ca. 1607. Loot was taken along the river to the water-stairs along the Strand, then by cart to the backyards of aldermen’s residences. In  taverns, chests were stowed in cellars, bales and barrels in stables, and churchyards were used as temporary burial-places.


Brewton, Bartholomew – From England. 16th century.

Sailed into Lulworth, Dorset, on the South coast of England, his pinnace full with silks, velvets, quality cloth taken from a ship from Flanders off the North Foreland. Threatened to take his goods elsewhere – to Milford Haven, or Guernsey or the Isle of Man – if Dorset folk were not interested. Along the South coast of England rovers openly displayed their wares on deck. Local gentry and clergy, farmers and shopkeepers, came from miles around to look them over.


Breyse – Seabeggar from the Netherlands. 1569.

Sailed with Jan > Broeck.


Bridge, Tobias – From England. Ca. 1600.


Bridgeman > Avery


Brierly, John – From Bath Town, North Carolina. Mariner.

Aka Timberhead. One of > Bonnet’s men in Royal James.Tried October 28, 1718 and found guilty upon two indictments: for robbing “upon the High Seas” the ship Francis and for seizing, “in a Piratical Manner”, the sloop Fortune. Hanged at Charleston, South Carolina, November 8, 1718.


Brig, Sol

One of > Bonnet’s men.


Brigaut, Nicolas – From Ré Island, France. (1653-1686)

Aka Brigant. Suffered shipwreck with a merchant vessel off Puerto Rico, 1678. Made it to the French part of Hispaniola to join a vessel in > Gramkont’s expedition to Maracaibo. Quartermaster in Michiel > Andriesz’ Mutine, 1684 during her voyage to New England. There Brigaut bought a 40-ton barque. Sailed with this vessel to Tortuga Island near Caracas meeting 800 flibusters there. 700 of them went to Darien to join flibuster forces in the South Sea. Loaded his barque with flour, wine and other commodities for the De Graaf/Grammont-fleet in Petit-Goâve preparing to attack Campêche. Was promoted to the post of captain of a 20-gun galleot taken after this ordeal, July 1685. Arrived with this ship at Petit-Goâve January 1686, because, he later declared: “que les capitaines Grammont, Laurent et tous les autres avaient reçu ordre du roi de se retirer au Petit-Goâve’’ (which emplies that the pirates this time sailed with official commissions). Early September 1686 sailed from Tortuga Island  in consort with Grammont to attack St. Augustine at the Atlantic coast of Florida. Went inshore at Matanzas with four soldiers in a canot flying Spanish colours to gather intelligence and to steal refreshments. When attacked  by the Spanish governor and forty soldiers repaired to his galleot, however she, due to heavy weather, had drifted upon a sandbank. Sent a canot with five men to warn Grammont for newly arrived Spanish troops in St. Augustine but Grammont never received the message. Nor did Brigaut find Grammont at their rendez-vous, the Barre des Mosquitos. This location, which was reached after a five days struggle, was visited by Indians he did not trust. Indeed, the Indians let their arrows fly and sent a messenger to St.Augustine. Captain De Fuentes arrived with 50 men and killed all flibusters except Brigaut, a negro called Diego and a nine years young boy. After his declaration May 30, Brigaut and his brother in arms Diego were sent to the gibbet.


Briggeho, William de – From Yorkshire, England.

The first Englishman known to have been hanged for piracy, 1228.


Bright, John – (1698-1723)

One of Ch. > Harris’s men. Was the drummer and “beat upon his drum upon the round house in the engagement.” Executed the 19th of July, 1723, near Newport in Rhode Island.


Brinkly, James – From Suffolk, England.

One of > Low’s men. On trial found guilty and hanged near Newport in Rhode Island, July 19, 1723.


Bright, Edward

One of Drake’s men during the circumnavigation.


Bright, John – From St. Margaret’s, Westminster. (1698-1723)

One of Charles > Harris’s and > Low’s crews. Hanged at Newport, Rhode Island, July 19, 1723.


Brimacain, George

When captain of the ship Fortune received a Jamaica commission to chase the Spanish, 1662. Settled as a planter at St. Andrew, Jamaica, 1666. Was pardoned by the king on August 18th, 1675, after having murdered one J. Furleigh.


Brinkley, James – From Suffolk, England. (1695-1723)

One of Charles > Harris’s men. Hanged at Newport, Rhode Island, July 19, 1723.


Brion, Louis -  From Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. (1782-1821)

Probably more privateer than pirate. Sailed as an admiral in the revolutionary navies of young nations as Venezuela and Columbia. Said to be the founder of these navies. We find a Brionplein (Brion Square) at Willemstad, Curaçao.


Briones, Bruno – From Chile.

Sargeant in the Chilean army who joined > Cambiazo in the 1851-rebellion, trying to establish a community in Punta Arenas, Patagonia. In command of El Libertador and Elisa, robbing ships in the Magellan Straits and selling the loot inValparaiso. Was arrested and executed Sunday July 4th, 1852.


Brise-Fer (Iron Wind) – Flibuster

Captain. Waited with > Grammont, > Junque and > Doublet at Rotan Island off Honduras for the force of De > Graaf to attack the cityof Vera Cruz, Mexico. 1683. Was shipwrecked after the raid.


Brital, Abdul-Rahman – Barbary corsair. Ca. 1829.

One of the last Saleh corsairs.


Brocchiero de Anaya, Diego – Maltese corsair from Spain.

A knight of Malta, captured by Venetian ships while anchored at Cerigo with two Turkish prizes, February 1583. Had taken booty worth 80.000-100.000 ducats. Taken prisoner in Venice but ransomed. In 1587 commanded a 50-gun galleon with 500 soldiers on board, seizing three Venetian merchant vessels.


Brock – From White Island, New Hampshire, North America.

One of > Teach’s men. Swore to stand guard over “Blackbeard’s treasure until the day of doom”. So says The complete Book of Witchcraft and Demonology (Cranbury, New Jersey. 1966) in chapter The Realm of Ghosts.


Brodely > Bradley, Joseph


Broeck, Jan – Seabeggar from the Netherlands.

Aka Brokken. Took strong action against the cause of the Reformation. Served under Lodewijk van Nassau and joined the seabeggars. Plundered neutral ships, from Hamburg and Bremen. In June 1569 the earl of East Friesland enacted a law proclaiming any privateer, robber or pirate submitted to the penalty of instant death, no matter what commission or lettre de marque he could show. Equipped some ships with 500 men in total, especially to hunt down Jan Broeck. “1569 den 4. August, Morgens neun Uhr wurde Johann Brokken, einem Seeräuber, auf der Obermühle der Kopf abgeschlagen, danach nach dem Bruch geführt, der Leib untern die Erde begraben und der Kopf auf den Pahl gesteckt. Sein Leutenant Breyse ward pardonniert.’’ (1569. At nine o’clock in the morning Johann Brokken, a sea rover, had his head cut off at the Obermühle, then was taken to the brook, the body enterred and the head  put up on a pole. His leftenant Breyse was pardonned.”)


Broecke, Adriaan van – From the Netherlands.

Supposed to have been long a prisoner aboard > Avery’s ship whilst she was cruising in Indian waters. If Van Broecke was really aboard the ship it was more than probable that he was one of the crew. Said of this Every: “On quitting the Navy Every entered on a ship bound for the Spanish Main, the natural bourne of all true pirates. Here he joined a buccaneer ship and made several cruises in this profession before returning to Engeland to rejoin the Navy and take part in de Dutch War of 1674 [?] He next became captain of a Logwood cutting ship in the Bay of Campeach in which capacity he was honest enough to gain the favour of his employers, and tactful enough to become a favourite with his men. Having thus gained a permanent command Every married and settled down in the West Indies until finding that his wife had become unfaithful he abandoned both her and his home, to go ‘On the Account’, being at times, pirate and slave trader, both.”


Broecke, Adriaen van – Seabeggar from Antwerpen, the Spanish Netherlands.


Broeckensz, Marten Cornelisz – Seabeggar from Workum, Friesland. Weaver.

Marauding expeditions at sea and at land. Leader of a 50 men gang.


Broersma, Lieuwe – Seabeggar from Kollumerzwaag, Friesland. 1566-‘8.


Broke, Keno ten – From East Friesland.

Aka Kenno tom Brok. When the Vitalienbrüder and Likedeelers plundered the shipping in the North Sea the coasts of Friesland was not under the domination of any single landlord, but was divided into rural parishers, ver which local chieftains exercised power. Ten Broke was such a chieftain (hovetlinge), c. 1398, usually warring with some ruler in Holland and Oldenburg. Used pirates with their ships as a navy, because the cost was little as they took booty instead of pay. In return offered a secure harbour and a market for their loot. It is not known whether he sailed and plundered himself. People, then, said so.


Broke, Widzel ten – Vitalienbruder from East Friesland.

Aka Widzel tom Brok. Leader of a pirate settlement along the coast between Esens, Norden and Emden. Also active in political affairs to enlarge his properties. Cooperated with dukes of Holland. Ca. 1398. The way these people worked is illustrated in a Flemish account: “The Vitalienbrüder, to whom Widzel tom Brok had given domicile in Friesland, recenty took over a ship in Norway laden with beer from Wismar (...). In this ship the same Vitalienbrüder sailed from Norway past the Zwin estuary into the Straits of Calais and there they captured 14 or 15 ships laden with all manner of goods (...) At the same time they also captured a ship which came from England and was bound for the Zwin. In the vessel the merchants of our law [i.e. the Hansa] lost large quantities of gold and cloth, and the rovers took these merchants with them to Friesland. And after they had taken all the ships they wanted, they then sold back the ship from Norway to her master for a sum of money, for which he was held hostage, so that he could claim the money from Widzel tom Brok in Friesland. This ship-master Eggbert Schoeff also informed us that the Vitalienbrüder had ordered him to tell us that they were God’s friends and foes of all the world, except those from Hamburg and Bremen, to whom they wished to do no harm.”


Brokken, Jan  > Broeck, Jan


Bronson – From England.

One of the captains who cruised in the waters of the Strait of Gibraltar and sold the loot in Ireland. Captured there and hanged at Wapping. Ca. 1610.


Brook, John


Brooke, Morgan – From England.

Robbed a Spanish ship of its cargo of quality goods: “large jars of delicacies, apparatus and appendages of wine making”. Tried but found not guilty (Ignoramus). Ca. 1606.


Brooker, Thomas – From England.

Ship’s carpenter of a fishing boat from Leigh that took a better boat in Shoeburyness. This band sailed up the coast to Orford Ness, robbed the Dutch Gouden Haen (Golden Cock) from Haarlem. Seized Desire of Barking. Off Reculver attacked Cock of St. Omer, making off with her cargo of lawns and cambrics worth a 200 pounds sterling. Made their way overland to London, able to dispose of some of the loot at St. Bartholomew’s Fair.


Brookes, Joseph

One of > Plumer’s men in the whaleboat of New Bedford whaler Junior, January 3, 1858.


Brooks, Edward

> Shelvocke’s first officer in Speedwell during the raid into the Pacific, 1720. Leader of a mutiny after the shipwreck at Juan Fernández. Shelvocke said that > Morphew and Brooks “stood outside the tent and used me with so much impudence and oppobrious language as never could have been believed to have come out of mouths of men.” Sailors are known and praised for their inventive language; Brooks probably was a master in the art. The shipwrecked sailors built a new vessel and promoted Brooks to take command. Now willing to take a hand with the building his followers joined the building team on the beach. Was a trained diver (the only one of the crew) and succeeded to haul up a small gun of Speedwell’s quarterdeck to be fit to the rescue vessel. When leaving the island more than 40 men were crammed together so tightly “that they had to lie on the bundles of smoked eels and being in no method of keeping themselves clean, all senses were as much offended as possible”. To drink, the men sucked water from the water butts through a musket barrel passed from hand to hand. Food was rationed to one eel per man per day. After sveral thwarted attacks this nutshell succeeded in capturing the 200-ton Jesu Maria. Brooks no longer appears in the books, Shelvocke having taken over command again.


Brooks (jr), Joseph

One of Teach’s men in the sloop Queen Ann’s Revenge. Taken prisoner to Williamsburg, Virginia, November 22, 1718, and there hanged.


Brooks (sr), Joseph

One of > Teach’s men in the sloop Queen Ann’s Revenge. Killed November 22, 1718, at Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, during the fight with Maynard and his crew.


Brouage – Flibuster from France.

One of De > Graaf’s men, 1683. Navigator. When his captain fell ill (or rested in the well-chosen arms of a beautiful mulatto girl), quartermaster Brouage was given command of the 54-gun (210 men) Neptune, with the orders to join captain > Andriesz and his 44-gun (200 men) Mutine cruising North of Cuba. Together they took, 19 May, two merchantmen from the Netherlands: Stad Rotterdam and Elizabeth, chartered by Spain and carrying 200.000 pieces of eight in cash. Neptune was dismasted in a hurricane, had to drift into San Tomas and buy new masts and spars for an extra high prize. At Tortuga Island organised a chasse-partie (expedition) to the Orinoco River. In 1685 sailed in consort with Andriesz, La > Garde, > Roze, and > Vigneron direction Caracas, where De Graaf resumed command. In 1690 answered a call of M. de > Cussy to go and attack the Spaniards in Hispaniola, in company of De Graaf and Le > Basque. This invasion went as far as Santiago de los Cavalleros. The Spanish lost a thousand dead or wounded, the town was thoroughly sacked.


Brouard, Ange Michel

Resident of New Orleans, c. 1810. Part-owner and captain of the felucca Duc de Montebello. On July 5, 1810, sharing the felucca’s command with Jan > Leloup, stopped the slave felucca El Bolador (raising the flag of France and identifying herself as the privateer Carolina). Imprisoned her crew on his vessel, put a prize crew aboard El Bolador and sailed her to an inlet called Round Way. Pillaged the vessel of everything including 70 slaves, then burned her. Sailed West to the mouth of Bayou Lafourche and there started the slaves on the underground trade route up the Lafourche to the New Orleans market. Sold them to various planters.


Brouse, John

One of John > Adey’s men during his exploits in 1600.



One of > Green’s men. Convicted and received sentence for supposed piracy and murders, on April 18th, 1705.



One of Jean > Lafitte’s men. Undertook with 4 accomplices a landfall to the plantation of one John Lyons at the Queu de Tortue bayou. Tied Mr and Mrs Lyons up and mistreated them badly. Left the place with a number of slaves. The authorities of Louisiana demanded satisfaction for this misdeed. Lafitte had already hanged him at Galveston, his new headquarters. Delivered the 4 others at the government’s request.



Active off the East coasts of Central America in the first half of the 19th century. Captain.


Brown – From England.

Settled in Madagascar. Raised at least one daughter from a Malagasy woman and called her Eleonora Brown. The girl was very well behaved, and spoke some English. Her father had taught her the ten commandments, the creed and the lord’s prayer as well as the principles of the christian faith. > Plantain, also a settler there, said he would like to marry her and asked grandfather Dick, “King of Messaleage”, for her hand. But the man refused, upon which Plantain raised hell in a war that ended with his victory and the king slain. It turned out that Eleonora Brown was with child from another sea rover. (> Burgen, Hans) Again Plantain exploded in a rage, put king Dick to death and set fire to the town of Massaleage, burning and looting all the possessions of the king. After this “satisfaction” travelled back to Ranters Bay, taking Mrs. Brown with him, his principal trophee. He loved her all his further life and had many children by her.



Sailed from Jamaica in command of the 10-gun and 70-men Blessing, having Edward > Davis on board, July 24, 1702. Attacked Tolu in the Spanish Main and took that town. However, was shot through the head and died.


Brown, Edward – From England.

Seaman of an English clippership. Paid off in Hong Kong. In command (only in name) of a 30-crew cargo lorcha owned by a Chinese merchant flying the red ensign. In February 1857 captured by a fleet of seven pirate vessels (tymung) after having sought refuge from heavy weather in a quiet bay close to Cape Verela. The lorcha-crew had decided to fight for the ship and her contents. Worked two guns so well that the nearest tymung had her foremast shot away. Advised the crew to carry on. Trained the guns for them with great effeciency, so that the men embraced him. Then put the lorcha before the wind and brought the attackers on a respectable distance. One more tymong was put out of acton after a well-aimed salvo but two ran along the lorcha’s side, threw stinkpots on her deck and boarded. Expected to be killed but one of the pirates said he and the lorcha were far too valuable, he because of his skills and the vessel to augment the pirate fleet. This pirate spoke a well-tongued sort of English, his name was > Ah’moi. Brown’s men were pulled up on deck by their pigtails, which is a great insult.

      The pirate chief, > Ching Ah’ling, showed Brown around over his tymungs, asking him to teach his men how to use the guns more efficiently. The pirate said he wanted Europeans to command his vessels. Was appointed to the posts of commander and gunner of Ching’s second tymung, was told that women were not allowed on board any of his ships. Ah’moi would accompany him as interpreter. Received the order to drill his crew twice a day, practicing the guns as well as working the sails during an action. Was “dressed up as a mandarin, third grade, having a blood red cornelian button on his cap, a long dress of yellow silk crepe, light blue silk pantaloons tied below his knees and white calico stockings. He was wearing the usual white, clumsy Chinese shoes, with soles more than an inch thick, slightly turned up at the toes.” The Chinese owner of the lorcha (still on board) advised him not to escape.

      His first prize did not put up any resistance. Saw how two pirates held up two young girls in a pool of oil while a third pirate searched them. They cut off their clothing and searched for money or jewellery, and did not stop until they were totally naked. “What happened to them does not need relating, for no control over the pirates was kept during these attacks and they were known to be utterly amoral.” The prize carried a cargo of salt, oil and pigs and 42 passengers. Her crew counted 13 men.

      Next morning the fleet sighted a large Fukien junk. Set all sail and had all guns prepared for action as a determined resistance could be expected. (She mounted 9 guns from 4- to 9-pounders and 3 gingals of Chinese make.) At a distance of about 800 yards aimed at her bows with a 12-pounder swivel gun. This fight is told in the information on > Ah’moi. Allthough Brown was not able to control his men, they runnng about the deck in confusion, the fight ended in his favour, loosing 10 men. (The dead bodies were sewn up in long white bags and laid on deck to be taken on shore. The Chinese had antipathy to being buried at sea, believing body and soul were then lost for ever.) Had fired more than 60 holes in the junk. Her contents consisted of dried fruit, tea, beans, sugar, candy, silk thread, grass cloth, umbrellas, fans, lead, opium and money. In the captain’s cabin three boxes of silver ingots with a value of $ 9.000 were found, also a box with gold bars and two packeages of gold leaf worth about $ 8.000. This was sent to Ching Ah’ling. Cargo and specie, about $ 50.000 worth, were sold at Turon, the ship cut up for firewood.

      Early May 1857, when the pirates went ashore to a small fising village, Brown asked to see Ching. Was given a sampan which had to be sculled for speed through the water. Could not do that and missed Ching’s tymung, only 40 yards away, completely. Blown on the rocks which ruined the sampan. Managed to climb over the rocks and reach the village where he spent the night. Next day came aboard his tymung only to meet his crew in turmoil. They shouted “Faen kwi shatao”, which, actually, means so much as cutting off the head of a white devil. The men tried to put this intention into effect. Jumped overboard in great despatch but no other tymung would take him on board, pelting him with stones. Swam to the shore more than a mile away and was rescued by the villagers who looked after him with kindness. When recovered from wounds and the shock was put on his way to Kampot in Cambodia, where often English ships were anchored. Wrote about his adventures in Cochin-China, and my Experience of it (1861; reprinted in 1971).



Aka Flabby Brown. Member of the New York “Charlton Street Gang”, c. 1869. The gang spent the days in an abandoned gin mill and the nights stealing and robbing ships and people from rowboats. An infamous chum was > Sadie the Goat. The gang rowed for miles, with oars muffled by rags. The New York City police estimated that there were 50 gangs and between 400-500 river pirates in this area between New Jersey and Brooklyn.


Brown, George

In command of a vessel active from Galveston, Republic of Texas, in the Gulf of Mexico sought a commission from the > Lafitte’s. August 29, 1819 was given a commission by > Humbert to take only Spanish goods. Instead took two armed pirogues up the Mermenteau River in Louisianian waters, and thence into the Bayou Queue de Tortue, September 27. Broke with a gang of a dozen armed men with blackened faces into a house in lower St. Landry Parish. Tied a family of man, wife and children, then pretended to be customs inspectors and ransacked the house. When leaving took anything of value, including ten slaves. While returning to Galveston hunted by several ship’s boats of the armed US-vessel Lynx and captured. Escaped and stole a boat. Reached Galveston on the evening of November 5. Jean Lafitte was still master of the island and when he learned about the rbbery of Brown and his dirty dozen he feared untold problems with the US. Lafitte waisted to time and had a court-session organised the very next day. The honorable gentlemen found Brown c.s. guilty and sentenced them to death. At noon Brown hanged from a gibbet erected on a point where everybody passing by could see him. The others were reprieved but banished from the island, “sent out into the wild to repent their crimes”.


Brown, Guillermo

Probably one William Brown, sailing for the revolutionary navy of Argentina. In 1928 in Bueno Aires a book was published with the following rtitle: La expedición de corso der Comodore Guillermo Brown en aguas del Pacifico Octubre de 1815 – Junio de 1816. See also > Bouchard.


Brown, James – From Scotland.

Leader of a band of English, Netherlandish and French seamen, licensed by the governor of Sainte Domingue to harass Spanish shipping. In 1677 took the Dutch slaver De Vergulde Sonne (the guilded sun), killed her captain and several of the crew and landed the cargo of 150 negroes in a remote bay of Jamaica. A king’s ship was sent and captured some 100 negroes and also Brown and 8 of his crew. The 8 were pardoned but Brown sent to the gallows. Half an hour after the hanging the provost-marshal appeared with an order to stop the execution.


Brown, James

Governor Markham of Pennsylvania not only gave sanctuary to > Avery’s men, even allowed his daughter to marry one of his crew (1696): “Five or six vessels are come from the Red Sea. I doubt not to hear that some of them touched at Pennsylvania where Mr. Markham contiues their steady friend. He entertained and countenanced some of Avery’s men; he had the Lord’s proclamation against them but let two of them go to Carolina, and the other two are in the province. One of them, James Brown, is married to Markham’s daughter, and lives near Newcastle if he be not dead.” Far from being dead gained a seat in the Pennsylvania Assembly, associating with the best families of Philadelpia.


Brown, James

Active ca. 1850. Arrived in 1902 in San Francisco, California, stating he knew nthe whereabouts the treasure of Richard > Thompson through information of his son. The young Thompson had died in a fight and now he, Brown, was the only one to guide the treasurehunters to an hoard of gold. Indeed a expedition was fitted out. But the investors sailed for nothing. Brown could not find the said island.


Brown, John

One John > Hawkins’ men. Imprisoned by the Spanish in 1568 and as Juan Brun brought before the Inquisition.


Brown, John – From Durham, England. (1694-1723)

Aka The Tallest. One of Charles > Harris’s men. When tried said “that on the ninth of October last he was taken out of the Liverpool merchant at the Cape De Verde by Capt. Low who beat him black and bliue to make him sign the articles.” Hanged at Newport, Rhode Island.


Brown, John

Aka The Shortest. One of Charles > Harris’s men. When tried said “that he was abpout seventeen years old, and in October last at the Cape de Verdes was taken out of a ship by Low, and kept ever since, and that the quarter-mastergave him forty shilligs, and the people aboard about three pounds.” With > Cunningham was “recommended unto His Majesty, for Remission.”


Brown, John

Settled in Sierra Leone, West Africa. Ca. 1720.


Brown, John – From Jamaica. (1692-1717)

One of > Bellamy’s men. Had been taken off Cuba and apparently chosen Bellamy’s side. Was put on a wine-loaded prize with 7 others of Bellamy’s men. 7 of the 8 immadiately went for the Madeira wine and neglected their duty. It did not take long before the vessel fell behind the rest of the pirate-flotilla. Bellamy yelled at the leader to “make more haste”. Brown declared himself captain and yelled back he would make this Mary Anne “carry sail till she carried her masts away.” Found Mary Anne was a leaking basket so instead of drinking themselves to a stupor had to bail and pump. Said he “wished he had never seen her.” The end of this story with squalls turning into gales and gales into tornadoes we read in the bio’s of the names that follow here: Thomas > Baker, Simon van > Voorst, Peter > Hoof, John > Sheean and Hendrick > Quintor. Their lives ended at a scaffolding erected between the rise and fall of the tide, November 15, 1717 at Boston. But not before the lot had broken out into “furious expressions with many oaths”. Later did read a prayer, but as reverend Mather stated, it was “not very pertinently chosen”, therefor directed Brown in his last conversation:

      “Brown. In what state does thy death now within a five minutes of thee, find thee?”

      “Very bad.”

      “You see yourself then a most miserable sinner?”

      “Oh! Most miserable!”

      “You have your heart wonderfully hardened. (...) There is no help to be had, but in the admirable Saviour, whom I am now to point to you.”

      “Oh! God be merciful to me a sinner.”

      “A sinner. Alas, what cause to say so. But I pray, What more special sins, lie now as a more heavy burden on you?”

     “Special sins! Why, I have been guilty of all the sins in the world! I know not where to begin. I may begin with gaming! No, whoring, that led on to gaming; and gaming led on to drinking; and drinking to lying, and swearing and cursing, and all that is bad; and so to thieving; and to this.”


Brown, Nicholas

A die-hard pirate. Instead of accepting a king’s pardon for pirates at New Providence, Bahamas, surrendered to the governor of Spanish Cuba. Embraced the catholic faith, 1718. Got himself very busy attacking English ships off the island of Jamaica. So now the English scolded him for a “Traytor, Pyrate and common Enemy to all Nations”, 1721.

Maybe the same man of whom the London Journal reported (22 April, 1727): “The head of Nicholas Brown, a notorious pirate, was brought in to Jamacia by Captain Drudge, a reward of 500 pounds having been promised by the Government there for the taking [of] him.”


Brown, Peter

Settled in Sierra Leone, West Africa, ca. 1720.


Brown, Thomas

Aka Bourn. One of  > Rackam’s and Charles > Vane’s men. Vane “would give no quarter to the Bermudians”, took revenge for some misdeed of these islanders, and usually “cut away their masts upon account of one Thomas Brown who was detain’d in these Islands upon suspicion of piracy.” Planned to sail with Vane until foiled by his capture. Stood trial with 11 of Rackam’s company. Charged with (a.o.): “That about one league from Dry Harbour Bay, Jamaica, they did board and enter a merchant sloop called Mary, and did steal and carry away the sloop and her tackle”. Released, probably for lack of evidence, 1718.


Browne, Edward – From Virginia, North America.

Joined > Pound at York River, Virginia. Was wounded in a hand in the fight at Tarpaulin Cove. 1689. Not guilty.


Browne, James > Brown, James


Browne, James

Aka John Brown. One of the crew of > Kidd’s Blessed William when the crew stole the ship from him, 1689. Took her to New York. Cruised in Jacob, receiving a share of 800 pounds sterling on returning in 1693. Retired but took to the sea again with Kidd’s new venture from New York to the Indian Ocean in the galley-frigate Adventure, 1696. Left Kidd to join > Culliford’s Mocha at St. Marie. Returned with > Shelley’s Nassau. Was arrested at New York and sent to England to stand trial, charged with piracy. Granted bail, August 1700.


Browne, John – From England.

One of John > Hawkins’men.


Browne, John – Barbary corsair from England.

Alias Mammy Reys. Joined the corso in Algiers and turned Mohammedan. Taken in the ship Exchange. Carried to Plymouth as a prisoner. 1622.


Browne, John

Went out with > Kidd in the 1689 West Indies camaign and one of > Kidd’s Blessed William when the crew stole the ship from him. Took the ship to New York. Cruised in the ship Jacob and received a share of 800 pounds sterling on returning in 1693. Retired but took to the sea again with Kidd’s new venture, 1696, in Adventure Galley. Was accepted because of his experiences in India.


Browne, Nicholas

One of Van > Hoorn’s men, in Cadíz, Spain, whipped to death by him for “as no apparent reason”.


Browne, Richard – Flibuster.

One of Henry > Morgan’s men. Surgeon. Wrote an account of the explosion on board Oxford during a banquet on January 2, 1669, off Ile-à-Vache on the SouthWestcoast of Hispaniola: “I was eating my dinner with the rest when the mainmast blew out and fell upon Captains Aylett and Bigford and others and knocked them on the head. I saved myself by getting astride the mizzenmast.” Those who sat on his side of the table, including Morgan and > Collier, were thrown into the air and found themselves swimming amid shattered timbers and the broken and disjointed bodies of the crew. Browne splashed around until he managed to scramble on to part of the mizzen mast. Soon boats from the rest of the fleet were rowing through the wreckage. Apart from Morgan, Collier, > Morris the elder, 2 semen and 4 cabin boys, everybody else, some 250 men in all, perished in this devastating blow.

      After the raid on Panama (1671) admitted that the buccaneers were far worse in rape and cruelty of the captured women and men than > Exquemelin reported in his book A History of Buccaneers (English version in 1684-‘5).


Browne, Thomas

One of John > Hawkins’ men.


Browne, Thomas

One of the Tilbury Hope company that took a “littel Dutch shipp a hoy or wherry’. A rather good booty, consisting of silver in packets or in objecdts like bracelets, cloth, plates, saucer &c., plus “1 Crimson Damaske petticoat” and many other precious items. The hoy sounded as if it were constantly engaged by silversmiths, high-class tailors and embroiderers in the Netherlands, and by gold- and silversmiths, tailors and jewellers in England. “Of which chattels,” the warrant reads, “those were found in possession” of (a.o.) Thomas Browne, “hanged at Wapping, XXV May 1604”.


Brownrigg, John

Aboard the brig Vineyard, November 1822 bound for Philadelphia with a cargo of cotton, ,molasses and “54.000 dollars in specie”. More or less forced into a mutiny led by Charles > Gibbs. Was in the maintop as a lookout when the mutiny took place. After the killing of the captain and the mates the crew steered for the Southampton Light. One of the four survivors who made the beach at Pelican Island after scuttling the brig. The quartet tried to travel further toward the mainland. At this point refused to further accompany his fellow mariners. He muttered to a cart driver that Gibbs and negro cook  > Wansley were murderers. This man sent a message to a local magistrate who took immediate action. At the trial gave the most damning testimony. Gibbs and Wansley arrived at the gallows on the 22d of April, 1823, although other sources speak of 1831. Watched how the traps were sprung, the convulsive death throes of the doomed men, and how silence fell over the gallows-yard.


Brubaker > Baker, Bru


Bruce > Bunce, Karel


Bruce, William – Flibuster, 17th century.



One of > Greens’s men. Hanged on Wednesday, April 18th, 1704.


Brugh, Carleton van

Aka Vanbrugh. Representative of merchantmen from Bristol, Wales, who fitted out a fleet under Woodes > Rogers, 1708. Served in admiralship Duke. Transferred to Duchess due to recalcitrant behaviour. There he shared the quarterdeck with W. > Dampier, a man who circumnavigated the world twice and wrote some extended reports about it. This was the voyage that framed A. > Selkirk as Defoe’s famous Robinson Crusoe.


Brugman, Jan Paul – From the Republic of the United Provincies.

In command of a ship involved in smuggling between the island of Curaçao and the Spanish Main, 1730-50. “In spite of their European neutrality [...] the Dutch [nation] in the Caribbean became heavily embroiled in the conflicts between their powerful neighbours [Spain, England; the War of Jenkin’s Ear]. But the security of their trade and navigation was for them a matter of life and death.” In consort with > Lixraven raided two Basque vessels on the Venezolean coast, 1737, forcing them to change their cargoes of  “tobacco and cacao for cloths and other goods”.


Bruin, Cornelis (Kees) de – From Antwerpen, Flanders, b. 1764.

Aka Kees de Brabander. “Long 5 feet 3 à 4 inches, looking old, thick nose and lips, long chin, fair curly hair, blue eyes, reasonable fat.” Dressed like a skipper. Member of the Catoenbende (Cottongang) and “Hollandse Bende”(Dutch Gang; > Bosbeeck, Jan) wearing a hood during raids on the coasts of Zeeland and the South of Holland. Was arrested and lived through the ordeal of being tortured giving no one away. Took part in many more expeditions after the “Hollandse Bende” was disbanded (1798), always escaping the law.


Bruin Jansz – Seabeggar from Farmsum, Friesland


Brull, van der

Active from Isla Términos, Yucatán, ca. 1700. > Bold, John.


Bruneton, Jacques – Flibuster from France.

Sailed with Laurens de > Graaf.


Bruns, Hans – From Hamburg, Germany. Ca. 1458.


Brunstich, Court – From the Netherlands.

Pardoned in Vlissingen, Zeeland. 1617.


Bruy, Jean de

Beheaded in 1585 with all his men in Hamburg, Westfriesland, “die Köpfe wieder auf Pfähle gesteckt” (the heads pricked upon poles).


Bruyn, Kees de - > Bruin, Cornelis (Kees) de


Bruyn, Robert – Seabeggar from Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Belonged February 1570 to a group of five who, while singing psalms and yelling "vive les gueux", overmastered a market-boat with 5.000 florins tax-money. Financed a ship with his part of the loot, made himself captain and joined the seabeggars. Sailed one year later in the fleet in the Eems river but froze up off the island of Texel. Then sailed in company of > Lumey in British waters. Was present at the taking of Den Briel, April 1572.


Buah Ryah – From Borneo.

The advance and the demands of white men in remote territories of the world many times brought misfortune for the local people. They often took to robbery and piracy to maintain their livelihood. One of the tribes were the Insabi. Their chief on Borneo’s Kanowit River went by the name of Buah Ryah. In 1849 he was persuaded to give up piratical and head-hunting cruises. An expedition under leadership of Rajah James Brooke left 22 August, 1849. A eye-witness said the force landed to inspect a large village house surrounded by a cotton-plantation, well built and full of baskets of the skulls of the unfortunates who had been surprised by these marauders. “I counted 300 heads in one village. Than it been decided to give up the expedition and return. Thus the pacification of these districts was delayed for many years.” The witness, a British soldier, tells us that when they “gloomily” fell down the river they met thousands of natives who were coming to join the expedition. When near the mouth of the Kanowit the force was hailed by the inhabitants of the villages the British had destroyed. A conference ensued; the local Dayaks showed their faith in the white man by boldly pulling out their prahus. They did not attempt to deny their piracies, but promised amendment. “And most of these chiefs kept their word.”


Buck, Eleazer

One of > Pounds’s men. Had seven holes shot through his arms in the fight at Tarpaulin Cove. In 1689 tried at Boston for piracy, found guilty but pardoned on payment of a fine of 20 marks.


Buchanan, James

Executed at Execution-Dock on Wednesday the 20th of December, 1738.


Buck, Eleazer

One of > Pound’s men. Tried at Boston, 1689. Had to pay a fine of 20 marks.


Buckell – Buccaneer.

Captain. Tortuga as base. Sailed with > Mansvelt to Santa Catalina (the called Providence) in March 1666, with the idea of establishing a base on t he route of the treasure fleet from Porto Bello.


Buckenham – From England.

Sailed tot the West Indies but was taken by the Spaniards off the coast of Campeche and brought to Mexico. A prisoner there who escaped afterwards, reported that he saw Captain Buckenham, once a famous man at those old drinking bouts and owner of a sugar ship, working as a slave in the city of Mexico, “with a log chained to his leg and a basket at his back, crying bread about the streets for his master, a baker.”



Aka Boucquet. When the composer of this encyclopedia lodged in Les Cayes, Haïti, the innkeeper of “Le Relais” said he had a book “especialement” dedicated to buccaneer captain Bucket. Helas, he could not find it.



One of > Green’s men. Hanged at Leith on 19 April, 1705. Innocent of piracy.


Buckmaster, Edward

Started his career as a sailor. In 1689 ran a tavern in New York’s dock area but landed in jail because of political activities. Then joined neighbor > Kidd and > Culliford on their exploits into the Indian Ocean. An old sailor as he was supplemented by slaves, who performed most of the real work. Arrested in New York, and the first to inform the authorities about Kidd, a report that stated the leader had made “no good voyage”.


Bucris – From Greece.

Plagueing the waters near Athens, Greece, kidnapping people to Crete for sale as slaves. 239-‘8 BC.


Budart, Anthny

One of > Eaton’s men, and then joined the crew that manned the “Right Honourable Company’s Ketch Good Hope, taken by Eaton. Mate Duncan > Mackintosh was elected captain, 1686. Good Hope stayed in the Indian Ocean and the Straits of Malacca. In May 1689 the vessel arrived at St. Augustine’s “with good store of money and diamonds”, but not all went well. In 1689 “at last Divine Providence sent us a fishing boat to which we called, and they taking us into their canoe, carried us to Tymbolan where we continued for 6 weeks before we could have opportunity of going thence to the Streights of Mallacca by reason they were embroiled in a war with the Dutch and their neighbouring princes. From hence we went to Johore where a cessation of arms happening, we embarked on a Dutch sloop for Mallacca. At Johore we left 3 of our company whom we suspected will turn Maleiers, or Mussalman”. Budart was one the 3. Not a bad idea to turn renegade there. The others were either killed by people from Malay or sundried at Cape Corso Castle, Guinea.


Buffon – Barbary corsair from Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Renegade. InJournaelofteDagh-RegistervandereysenaarAlgiervanThomasHees, gedaanintjaar1675 we read: "Donderdagden30dito[januari] arriverencappiteinenBuffonendeJutzonderprijs." (Thursday 30 [January] captains Buffon and Jut arrived without a prize”)(CaptainJut, or Jew, commandedin1670the40guns ship De Bloempot (The Flowerpot), crewed by 50 christians and 300 moors. This ship was burned by admral Van Gent)


Buldermans, Jacques – Seabeggar from Wezel, Germany. Tailor.


Bulgarino – From Italy.

Ravaged Venetian shipping from his base Anaia in the Aegean Sea, 1275.


Bulin, Jean – From rance.

Joined a French squadron that attacked the Canary Islands, 1552.


Bulkeley, Charles – From Anglesey, England. 16th century.


Bulkeley, David – From Anglesey, England. 16th century.


Bulkeley, Richard – From Anglesey, England. Vice-admiral of North Wales. 16th century.

Had set up his brothers Charles and David as pirates. Encouraged French, Dutch and Irish rovers to frequent Beaumaris aka “the safest haven in the West”. Brother-in-law John > Griffith sailed a man-of-war,captained by his son. Whenever this vessel returned with a prize a dinner was given at the Bulkeley mansion and the booty parcelled out. In case a Queen’s ship brought a pirate ship in, there was no other choice but to have the vessel formally auctioned. Succeeded in purchasing her from the admiralty court at a rather low nominal figure.


Bull – Buccaneer.

One of > Coxon’s men. Killed in the attack on the Spanish fleet off Panama, 1680.


Bull, David – From London, England.

Aka Dixey Bull. In 1631left for Boston, North America, where he became a “trader for bever” (beaver?) in New England. Also received a grant of land at York on the coast of Maine. In June 1632 a French pinnace seized his shallop and stock of “coats, rugs, blankets, biskets, &c.” Bull organised a small group of bravados and unsuccessfullly chased the Frenchmen. Very much frustrated and in need of supplies turned to piracy, being the very first pirate of the New England coast. Took several modest vessels and also goods worth over 500 pounds from a trading station at Pemaquid, Massachusetts. Met with practically no resistance but one day a well-aimed musket shot from shore killed his second in command. The sight of human blood seemed to have been somewhat of a shock to the would-be and so far successful pirates, yet it was decided to continue the attacks on trading posts. Adopted a body of articles to govern their acts and among them a law against excessive drinking. Sent a writing to all governors on the coast, signifying his intent not to do harm to any more of  “their countrymen, but to go to the Southward and to advise them not to send men against them; for they were resolved to sink themselves rather than to be taken: signed underneath, Fortune le garde, and no name to it.”

      It is pobable, however, that the charges against him were exaggerated. One of the “serious accusations”against him was that when the New England fishermen assembled on deck at the hour of prayer, Bull caused his men to sing boisterous songs and shout meaningless phrases. Which might well horrify the strict Puritan. The authorities did not catch up with him. People say he went back to England a rich man, others that he joined the French.



> Kidd’s quartermaster.


Bullivant, Joseph

One of > Guyther’s men and committed to the Marshalseas Prison, London 1681, because of having taken the Dutch galliot De Liefde of Rotterdam on December the 3d, 1680, bound from Bordeaux , Franceto Dordrecht, Netherland.


Bullock – Buccaneer.

Surgeon in > Sharp’s ship and present at the disastrous attack on the town of Arica, South America. Did not escape with the other rovers because of his lust for drinking. Was persuaded to disclose the smoke-signals which were to be given to bring up the boats that were hiding on the shore, so Gosse says, ready to take the buccaneers back to their ships. Fortunately the fleeing buccaneers arrived just as the boats were getting under way. Surgeons were considered to be valuable on pirate ships but also in the out-of-the-way Spanish colonies. Was some months later reported as being “civilly entertained” there, “more especially by the women.”



In command of one of the four vessels that avenged the hanging of Chr. > Oloard, 1603.


Bults, Otto Jans – Seabeggar fromFriesland.


Bunce, Karel – From the Netherlands. (1696-1722)

Aka Bruce. One of Barth. > Roberts’men, taken out of the Dutch ship Semm in August 1721. Performed the theater of a forced man. Captained Little Ranger and celebrated the ntaking of a prize with a 13-gun salute. On the morning of 10 February 1722 prepared to fire his salute when a ship was sighted entering the bay where his Little Ranger and Roberts’ Royal Fortune lay anchored. Many men were drunkenly befuddled on the barrels and bottles from some recently taken prizes. The ship was not the expected Ranger, commanded by shipmate > Skyrme. She was Swallow, a man of war. Bunce had to abandon his vessel, laden with private treasures of chests and coffers of coins, gems and rich delights. When taken prisoner by the English was not that glum, however. Said Defoe: “they would yet in these circumstances, be impudent merry, saying, when they viewed their nakedness, that they had not left them a half-penny to give old Charon to ferry them over Stix.”

      Sent to the gallows, 20 april 1722. Behaved bravely and remorseful and made a moving speech for a far but moved crowd: “disclaiming against the guilded Bates of Power, Liberty, and Wealth hat had ensnared him amongst the pirates.”  Begged for forgiveness for his deeds, earnestly exhorting the spectators to remember his youth. Ended by emphasizing the fact “he stood there as a beacon upon a Rock” (the gallows indeed standing on one), “to warn erring Marriners of Danger.”


Bunce, Phineas (or Josiah)

Took a pardon from governor > Rogers in New Providence Island, Bahama’s, July 1717. Boatswain in the schooner Batchelor’s Adventure, sent along with the sloops Mary (master: > Augur) and Lancaster to go out to secure the supllies the settlement needed to keep going. When anchored at Green Key Island, some 50 sm from New Providence, came on board the sloop Lancaster with his captain to consult about sailing times, 5 October 1718. The crews exchanged small talk, maps were brought out as their masters discussed the situation, and Bunce asked for bottles of beer. After some drinks became obnoxious. His behaviour turned out to be a decoy. After a while Lancaster and also Mary were taken, all of the crews were in on the plot. Took over command, “crying up a Pyrate’s Life to be the only Life for a Man of any Spirit.” Had reflected on the king and the government in an uncomplimentary and undeferential way, boasting about how he could command Batchelor’s Adventure better than anyone else. Abused those “very vilely” who refused to join his plans. After having marooned the captains and the few remaining loyal men sailed away and three times returned, beating their victims up as sport. Caught sight of three vessels at Long Island, one of the Bahama’s. Headed straight for them but was received in a rather harsh way. The vessels were Spanish privateers who opened up fire, splintering wood, and thereafter another shot wounded him. As a matter of fact the small pirate squadron took a maulding at the hands of the Spaniards who by now had raised the anchors and now were ready to use their cannon. Several adventurers jumped into the water and swam to the shore while their vessels managed to turn tail and fled, only to be taken by two sloops sent by > Rogers, governor of the islands. Rogers decided to see the culprits for himself. Bunce was questioned while still on board of his command, and confessed to his deeds. Rogers decided to make an example since Bunce had accepted the king’s pardon, and planned to have him executed the very next morning. Before he could dance, however, Bunce died of his wound.


Buoninsegna – Knight of St. John.

Present at the siege of Malta, 1565. Commander.


Burak Reys – Barbary corsair from Turkey.

Active as a pirate pillaging christian shipping in the Levante, 1485-‘99.


Burder, William – From England.

Mayor of Dover, England. Active circa 1563. Captured 600 French, 61 Spanish vessels and a number of small craft. Maybe the numbers are exaggerated.


Burding, John

One of > Culliford’s men. Brought from the East Indies to England for trial on charges of piracy. Granted bail August 19, 1700.


Burgen, Hans – From Copenhagen, Danmark. Cooper.

Sailed with the ship Coward from London to the Guinea Coast. On being taken by pirates he joined them. Became a comrade to > Plantain at Ranter Bay in Madagascar to live a “very profane and debauched life”. Helped Plantain in fighting “King Dick”. Plantain had English colours flying at the head of his men, who were in the centre. Burgen’s men carried Danish colours on the left wing, and there was > Adair’s Scottish colours on the right. Plantain defeated Dick’s forces, killing many of the English pirates who fought for him. They were made to run across burning coals while his native soldiers threw lances at them until they fell and were burned to death. After the battle Pantain started entertainments at his castle. New songs were composed and sung in honour of his victories. 100 women formed up in a hollow square and entertained with songs and dances. Meanwhile an enprisoned sailor managed to escape but did not live long. He was found making love to Eleonore Brown, Dick’s daughter ( > Brown) for whom the war started. Again Plantain marched to King Dick’s stronghold. The fort took 18 months to capture and in one of the fights Burgen was killed.


Burgess, Daniel – From England.

Mate in the ship Neptune, c. 1700. Conspired with pirates to capture this vessel.


Burgess, Josiah > Burgess, Thomas


Burgess, Samuel – Buccaneer from New York.

In February 1690 joined a gang of mutineers on > Kidd’s privateer Blessed William, deciding that piracy was less risky and more profitable than warfare. After the taking of Jacob off the coast of the island of Madagscar returned to New York with 800 pound, April 1693. Bought a house and took part in the Pirate Round. Sent by F. > Philips to trade with the rovers and Adam > Baldridge in Madagascar. Undertook some piracy on his own, disposing the loot in the West Indies. In New York married a relative of F. Philips. Sailed three times to and from Madagascar taking pirates as passengers, who were returning to settle in North-America having made their fortunes (they, when captured at the Cape of Good Hope in December 1699, carried a total of 11.400 pound with them, about $ 5,7 million). Because of some unfortunate happenings found himself via Bombay in London, England, as a prisoner. 1701. When liberated ran across an former pirate associate named > Culliford, on whose evidence he was arrested again, tried and condemned to death but pardoned. Accepted the post of mate in a Scotch vessel with the will to Madagscar to trade liquors with the pirates there. This ship Neptune was dismasted in a sudden hurricane off the island and then seized by the pirate > Halsey who had his ship foundered in the same storm. Joined Halsey. Took the ship Greyhound only some days later, a ship that had just bought a valuable cargo from the Madagascar pirates.

     Lead a chequered life after this success, sailed under captain > North when accused of betrayal and robbed of all his hard-earned possessions. Also lived for quite some years in Methalage, a place in Madagascar, until robbed by Dutch rovers who were themselves robbed by French pirates. Was put ashore at the island of Johanna, North of Madagascar, where the crew expertly built a new ship. Dealt in slaves with David > Williams and other captains until he got a post as a 3th mate on a ship bound to the West Indies. Gosse says that before sailing, Burgess was sent to the local king as a ambassador because he spoke the language so well. But, rather unfortunate for himself, had made some rather unkind observations about this particular ruler. In revenge the offended chief gave him poisoned liquor to drink. Not true, others say: the black monarch poisoned him during an argument over prices. Anyway, the old pirate died there, in 1716.


Burgess, Thomas (or Josias)

In 1716 arrived in Nassau, New Providence Island, Bahamas, 1718 as master of a 8-gun sloop and a company of 80 men. Became one of the foremost commander in this pirate lair. However, was willing to give up the pirate life in exchange for a pardon. Drew up his crew in two lines with others like > Horngold, > Carter, > Courant and > Clark to welcome Woodes > Rogers. Received a commission to privateer upon the Spaniards. Took several prizes, “two of considerable Value, one loaden with Coco Nut, and another with Sugar”.  Sailed out in quest for new purchase but drowned at sea, 1719. > Rounsivell, the man who was pardoned at the gallows, had gone back into the water to try to rescue him, also drowned.


Burgh, John – From Ireland. (1562-’94)

Soldier in France and the Netherlands (then called the Low Countries). Became associated with Walter > Raleigh and received command over the 300-ton Roebuck, one ship of a fleet that was planned to sail to the West Indies but was diverted to the Azores instead. Captured a Portuguese galleon from Brazil, 1592. According to genuine pirate law permitted his officers and mariners to grab all that was not part of the cargo and the ship. In concert with Chr. > Newport in the Golden Dragon raided Venezuela, Trinidad and the Guayana’s, 1593, sponsored by Raleigh and a syndicate of London merchants, but met with little success. Was killed during a duel with J. Gilbert of Humphrey > Gilbert fame, March 1594.



One of John > Phillips’s men. “A well-built rogue”, taken out of a fishing boat, August 1723. Joined the pirates voluntarily. During a rise of enforced pirates and enprisoned merchant seamen was cut deeply in the shoulder and torso by > Fillmore with a hatchet. Died 17 April 1724. A week later later the ship entered Nova Scotia. At the mast’s head hung the heads of Philips and Burill. In New Foundland their heads were pickled  to be preserved for a prosecution’s inspection. Indeed the gruesome objects were taken to Boston where on 3 May the trial of the surviving pirates began.


Burk - From Ireland.

Active in the North Atlantic. Drowned with his 24-gun ship and 140 men during a hurricane, 1699.


Burke, Richard – From Ireland.

Aka Sir Richard-an-Iarainn (Richard-in-Iron; because he always wore a coat of mail) MacWilliam Burke. Owned a fleet of trading vessels but was described as “a plundering, warlike, unquiet and rebellious man”, 1576. Controlled fair pieces of land, and lived in his castle at Carraigahowley, Connacht. The Burke’s were originally Franks from Spain, Burke an adaption of Burgos. Married Grania > O’Malley, saying that the marriage was only “for a year certain”. Indeed, O’Malley waited until she controlled Burke’s lands, then took over his castle at Carragahowley (modern Rockfleet). O’Malley offered their services to the English: “three galleys and 200 fighting men, either in Ireland or in Scotland. She brought with her her husband, for she was, as well by sea as by land, more than master’s mate over him. He was of the Nether Burkes.” Was knighted by the English Crown representative, so that “for once she put on female clothes for the investiture.” Was father of O’Malley’s favorite son Tibbott-ne-Long. Died in 1583.


Burke, Theobald – From Ireland.

Son of Richard-an-Iarainn > Burke and Grace > O’Malley. Born in 1567 at sea, and therefore called Tibbott-ne-Long, meaning: Toby of the ships. The day after he was born a Turkish corsair attacked the vessel, so legends say. His famed mother stormed on deck, killed some Turks with blunderbusses, and hanged the pirates back home in Carraigahowley. Tibbott became a warrior of some respute himself, fighting or raiding at sea but mainly on land. In 1595 was put in charge of his mother’s remaining ships, with orders to sail in “Her Majesty’s service”. Was knighted Sir Theobald in 1603 – the same year his mother and the queen died.


Burn, Flora – 1741. Active on North America’s East coast.


Burnaby, Thomas

One of > Kennedy’s men.



Aka Burrage. March 22, 1724, captain >  Spriggs and his crew overmastered a ship coming from Jamaica, loaden with logwood. They took out of her all things as they thought fit, and what they did not want they threw overboard, “in short took all the pains in the world to be mischievous”. They also took, by force, the two mates and some other hands. On the 27th Spriggs captured a sloop from Rhode Island and all her men were obliged to join him. But the mate refused, and was said he should his discharge writ on his back, “whereupon he was to receive ten lashes from every man in the ship”. The next day mr. Burridge, mate of the Jamaica man, “signed their articles, which was so agreeable to them (he being a good artist [navigator] and sailor) that they gave three huzza’s, fired all the guns in the ship, and appointed him master: The day was spent in boisterous mirth, roaring and drinking of healths, among which was, by mistake, that of King George II”.



A New Foundland fish-splitter who joined John > Phillips’s Revenge voluntarily in September, 1723. Was made bosun. Lost his life in the forced men’s uprising April 17, 1724, in prizeship Squirrel. > Cheeseman would make do with master > Nutt, > Fillmore with Burrill, Squirrel’s captain Haraden with Phillips. In one blow Fillmore almost severed Burrill’s head from his shoulders, on his dying shout the pirate captain leapt from his cabin to his death over the side. One week later Squirrel entered Annisquam Harbour, Massuchusetts (others say it was St. Anns Harbour, Nova Scotia) with Burrill’s and Philips’s heads dangling from the sprit, to be pickled in New Foundland where their cruise all began.


Burroughs, Thomas – From England.

In command of Roebuck and overall command of > Raleigh’s squadron which had been intended to attack Panama but decided to lay in wait for some Portuguese caracks, expected to arrive from the East Indies. Spread his fleet North and South about 20 seamiles West of the Azores, six miles between every ship. Laid there from June 29 to August 3, 1592, when Madre de Dios, Portugal’s pride, hovered insight. Followed Dainty who engaged her but was “badly knocked about”. Then > Crosse’s Foresight laid herself alongside the huge carack. Two ships came to her assistance and “with very little loss entered with Sir R. Crosse, who had in that time broken their courages, and made the assault easy for the rest.”

      This prize was enormous, beyond expectancy. Madre de Dios was about 1.600 tons, carrying a crew of circa 700. She measured 165 feet from beak-head to stern. Three decks, her greatest beam was 46 ft. 10 in. When she left India she drew 31 ft. Her mainmast was 121 ft high, the mainyard 106. Far larger than any ship ever built in England, and now provided the means of giving English shipwrights valuable knowledge. Among her items of cargo were such articles as jewels, precious stones, spices, drugs, silks, carpets, cinnamon, cloves, pearls, ambergris, Chinese porcelain, &c. At every port the carack called on the way to England the prize crew disposed of part of the treasure. Finally anchored, after much mishap, the populace went wild. They came aboard, thieved and plundered to such an exent that the authorities had to order all trunks and bundles from Plymouth and Darthmouth to be examined. The London jewellers arrived, buying diamonds, rubies and so on at bargain prizes. Pearls or diamons were found all over the place, one errand man was arrested with 320 sparks of diamonds, a collar of threefold roll of pearl, a string of pearls with gold attachment, and more. One merchant had managed to obtain 1.800 diamonds and 500 rubies from one sailor only. Up to that date there never was seen such a treasure, and rovers never had such a gorge of their avariciousness.

      The mayor of Dartmouth and the sheriff of Devon were instructed to prohibit all sale of the carack’s goods, and obtain from the thieves what they had taken. In spite of that it was estimated that there remained on board at least 141.000 pounds sterling worth.



Survivor of the ship Pride of Devon, 1622. Taken prisoner by the Spanish, escaped from the horrors of the Inquisition. Committed piracy on the Spanish/Portuguese coasts. Died from the plague in London, 1666.


Burton, John – From England.

Lived and worked in New York when signing on with > Kidd, 1696.


Burton, Nicholas

One of > Eaton’s men.


Bury, Mark – From England.

Commanded the 70-ton vessel Way. Saw two captured ships restored to their owners by the Admiralty court. When in command of the bark Burton for > Raleigh, 1589, seized a Spanish/Mexican vessel in the Azores, carrying a cargo valued at 10.000 pounds.


Busch, Gerth von dem

One of > Kniphof’s men, c. 1525.


Buskes, Eustatius

Aka Wistasse aka De Zwarte Monnik (The Black Monk) aka Eustace le Moine.

     A certain way to reach a celestial destination is a life of serious devotion in a monastery. A monk named Eustatius lost confidence in this route. A legend tells us how he left the Benedictiner cloister of St. Vulmer to revenge his father (Boudewijn Buskes, paladin of Boulogne; caught in processes around the matters of a feudal estate, was lured into a trap and slain). Travelled to Toledo, Spain; people said he had sold his soul to the devil, actually he was taught the art of necromancy there. Sold his services to the highest bidder, starting in the army of the Duke of Boulogne, France. Went to sea after he was banned because of a murder. Specialised in ravaging French shipping from bases in Dover and the Channel-island of Sark, ca. 1210. Wool, wine and fish formed his most important loot. Enjoyed the protection of a English king (John without Land). Equipped a fleet that sailed up the Seine river, roving and plundering till close to Paris. Lived like a king himself in London until the day he also embezzled English ships. Therefore he, in 1214, accepted the inviting conditions of the king of France (Louis VII). In 1215 pillaged Folkestone and kept the sea lanes safe for invading forces while Louis’s armies occupied Southern England. In August 1217 led a French invasion to England. The English defended themselves bravely, blinding – one of the 2.300 strofes out of the epic poem "Wistace le Moigne" says so – the attackers by the spreading of clouds and clouds of white lime and plaster. Buskes was seriously hindered by the equipment for the invasion, offered 100.000 mark for his life, but lost his head that, pinned upon a lance, was carried around in triumph through the whole of South of England.

    Example of the adventurer who earns his money by being a corsair on one moment, and a pirate or a navy man the next.


Il a ouvré comme homme de guerre                         He lived like a man of war

Vous lui avez pris sa terre                                        Now he lost his land

Si vous le moigne pendriés                                       The monk has fallen

Trop d’ennemis enaveriés.                                        So many enemies had he.


Bustamente, Miguel – From Chile.

Soldier in the Chilean army who joined > Cambiazo’s rebellion trying to establish a settlement in South Patagonia. Served in the brigantine Florida. Arrested in November 1851.


Butes – From Greece. B.C.

Greek religious believes speak of Butes, a son of the windgod Boreas, who led a gang of pirates from Thrace, a region in Northern Greece and Bulgary. Basically trhese men did not do much than plundering, ravaging, murdering and raping, like so many Greek gods and heroes the like of > Odysseus. The pirates came upon women celebrating ecstatic orgies to honor the god Dionysus. Butes raped Coronis, one of the worshippers. (Coronis is the name of a pirate-town in Southern Greece till this very day.) This myth, says J. Rogozinski, may be based on folk memories of a real captain Butes. It is plausible, he says, that a corsair died while raping a priestess of Dionysus, the god of freuits (and wine) and fertility. Possessed women went into a savage frenzy, and gained enormous physical strength.


Butiens, Manuel – From the Netherlands. 17th century.

Served in Spanish ships.


Butler – From North America.Ca. 1780.


Butler, John – From Chalona, Ireland.

Lived 15 years in the Spanish Americas and, for this experience, promised > Oxenham rich booty in Panama. Became his leftenant during the 1576-‘8 raid, having crossed the Isthmus of Panama for the second time  (with >Drake in 1573 being the first). Was considered by the Spaniards as being more ruthless than Oxenham. Was tortured and executed by the Inquisition at Lima, 1577 or 1580.


Butler, John

Took a pinnace near the head of the Chesapeake Bay, 1635, the cargo consisting of “a great quantitie of trucking commodities”, intended for the Indian trade. This seizure became the first documented act of piracy on the waters of the Chesapeake. Was appointed to the post of  captain of the Militia Band of the Isle of Kent. His authority, says historian D.G. Shomette: “included the mustering of inhabitants capable of bearing arms to repel pirate invasions.”


Butler, Nathaniel – From Bedford, England.

Described as “an ancient soldier at sea and land” but went to sea when very young. A veteran of > Mansvelt’s Old Providence Island. Became a protege of R. Rich, earl of Warwick and a protestant leader, who made him governor of Bermuda, 1619-’22. Commanded ships in British fleets during raids in Spain and France. Wrote and published Dialogicall  Discourse Concerninge Marine Affairs in 1634 (reprinted in 1629). In 1638 made governor of  > Mansvelt’s Old Providence Island. Assembled Dutch and English vessels in a fleet to loot towns in Honduras, among them Trujillo, a port that had repelled earlier attacks. Took Trujillo by surprise and collected a ransom of 16.000 pounds. Taking more than his share hurried to England in secrecy.


Butler, Tobias

One of Walter > Kennedy’s 148 men in the ship Rover when taking the 150-ton West Rover Merchant, January 1720. This prize was manned by a crew of twelve devout, peace-loving Quakers. Kennedy “obliged Knot [the master] to take 8 of his Men on board his Ship, and made him give an Obligation under his Hand, that he Ship’d them as Passengers from London, to Virginia.” Butler was one of the eight and took with him as his part of the booty “three Negro men and a boy, a sizable quantity of gold dust, and a large sum of money.” This as a result when sailing under > Roberts. “Lived a jovial life all the while they were upon their voyage.” West River Merchant arrived February 7 within the Virginia Capes and had to come to anchor, due to adverse winds. Four of the pirates required leave to hoist their boat out, and merrily pulled the oars towards the shore. A sudden, frosty Chesapeak Bay storm struck and forced them to “an obscure place at the mouth of York River.” As the men finally reached the shore they were rather soon jailed, on suspicion of piracy. Because “their first care was to find a Tavern (...) where for some Time they lived very profusely treating all that came into their Company, and there being in the House English Women Servants, who had the good Fortune by some hidden Charms, to appear pleasing to these Picaroons, they set them [women] free, giving their Master 30 Pounds, the price he demanded for their time.” Seafaring people usually are spendthrifty, merry men, after so many days at sea looking for friendly company. Such a way of life is costly, and in this case cost them their necks. Butler died as he had lived, showing no signs of remorse or repentance. When coming to his place of execution called for a bottle of wine and, taking a glass of it, drank a final toast: “Damnation to the Governor and Confusion to the Colony.”


Buttcher – Captain. North America. Ca. 1720.


Butts – From England. Master-lawyer from the Inns of Court.

Took part in the “lawyers’excursion” in 1536 led by Master > Horne. Two ships sailed to New Foundland with high expectations of trade and adventure. Running short on provisions the company took to cannibalism. Finally saved themselves through taking a French fishing vessel. So shaken by these experiences that even his parents failed to recognize him.


Buuc, Jan – From Flanders.

In charge of the protection of the Flemish merchant fleet in the English Channel. In 1387 taken prisoner by the English in the Strait of Calais because of assumed pirate ways in the period of 1383-‘6. Died in prison in the Tower of London, October 1589.


Bije, Jan Pellegrimsz de - From Bommel, the Netherlands. Cabinboy. (1611-'29)

o/b VOC-ship Batavia, 1629. Not really a pirate but a mutineer. Delighted with his friendship with massmurderer > Cornelisz after the terrible events when the ship struck the reefs of the Albrolhos-group. “Well, look,” Cornelisz said, “See if you can lob off this man’s head.” Wept a thousands tears when he failed. Misused the women among the shipwrecked people. Was hanged October 2 1629 with his right hand chopped off, “because of his bestial and godless life, the murdering of a boy, beheading of Janneke Gijsen, complicity in the murder on Andries Jansz, and also because he cried so much when he was refused to behead Corn. Aldertsz.”


Byndbloss, Robert – Buccaneer. Colonel. Surgeon.

Recruited men for Morgan’s raid on Maracaibo, 1669.As a Member of the Council of Jamaica, 1670, accused to have encouraged British sailors to take French commissions. Answered that if he was provided with a ship, he would bring him back a buccaneer’s head on a spike, “so great was his abhorrence for the breed.” After the famous raid on the city of Panama, 1671, married Morgan’s sister and settled as a plantation-owner. On the 10th of the month October 1683 was charged with striking the receiver-general of Jamaica and using foul language to the new lieutenant-governor. Found guilty and ordered to leave St. Jago, Jamaica, within the hour. Rehabilitated in 1687. When Henry Morgan died one year later he left a part of his wealth to Byndbloss’s second son Charles.